Sno Title Type URL Theme Country Abstract Regions Keywords Rank Comments Available in DC
1
FAO, 2005. The status of fisheries of Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa by individual national sector. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 721. Rome, FAO. 2005. 19p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/a0117e/a0117e07.htm
Legal Issues N/a
This document is the final report of the Technical Consultation between Malawi. Mozambique and Tanzania on the Development and Management of the Fisheries of Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa. The major topics discussed were: current status of the fisheries in the Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa national sectors; legislations, restrictions, monitoring, control and surveillance; and fisheries management and environmental degradation issues.
1
No
2
Government of Tanzania. 2003. Tanzania Fisheries Act. Act No. 22 of 2003.
Documents and Reports
Legal Issues N/a
An Act to repeal and replace the Fisheries act, 1970, to make provision for sustainable developement, protection, conservation, aquaculture development, regulation and control of fish, fish products, aquatic flora and its products, and for related matters
1
No
3
Government of Mozambique. 1994. Master Plan of the Ministry of Fisheries. Ministry of Fisheries. Mozambique. 1994. 44p.
Documents and Reports
Legal Issues N/a
The Master Plan will serve as a tool for the government authorities to identify the strategies that the State will adopt to achieve the medium term (five years) and long term (ten years) development goals as set out for the sector as a whole. The Master Plan will furthermore be used to acquaint the economic agents with the intentions and expectations of the State, thereby furnishing a basis on which the private sector may plan its business operations and investments. Lastly, the Master Plan will be an instrument to define priorities with regard to the external development aid needs and the coordination of such aid.
1
No
4
Ndaki, W. 2006. Tanzania to crack down on unlawful fishing. Financial Times. 8 February 2006.
Documents and Reports
http://www.ippmedia.com/ipp/financial/2006/02/08/59568.html
Legal Issues N/a
Tthe country has embarked on conducting weekly aerial patrols over the said zone as a way of ensuring that industrial fleets from other countries don't fish in its artisanal
fishing zone.
1
No
5
Njaya, F.J ., S.J. Donda and M.M.Hara. Fisheries co-management in Malawi: Lake Chuita re-visit case study. 29p.
Documents and Reports
Co-management N/a
A re-visit study was conducted with an aim of assessing characteristics of the Lake Chiuta Fisheries Co-management arrangement. For local level institutions called Beach Village Committees (BVCs), social status, material benefits and the ability to keep nkacha fishers out of Lake Chiuta were major incentives for their partnership with the government. Government considers the partnership as being essential for ensuring sustainable utilisation of the resource and in this sense has increasingly taken advantage of the organised BVC structure to channel its management messages.
1
No
6
COMESA. 2005. Celebrating 10 years of hard work to build a common market in ESA. COMESA News, Volume 3, Issue 1. February 2005. 6p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.comesa.int/publications/newsletter/comesa-news-feb05
Legal Issues N/a
The 10th anniversary of the signature of the COMESA Treaty celebrated last December in the margin of the Policy Organs meeting was an ideal occasion to take stock of the achievements and progress made. The COMESA Treaty signed in 1994 gave birth to a unique configuration of integration in Africa with 19 countries from Eastern and Southern Africa.
1
No
7
Program on the Lakes of East Africa (PLEA)
Documents and Reports
http://africa.msu.edu/PLEA/#RESOURCES
Legal Issues N/a
The Program on the Lakes of East Africa (PLEA) is a research, training, and service program of the African Studies Center of Michigan State University in collaboration with the fisheries research institutes of Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. PLEA does research on Lakes Victoria and Malawi on the Anthropology and Sociology of fisheries management and development, women and gender,environmental policy, the socioeconomic impacts of species introductions, and relations of production .
1
No
8
The Vision and Strategy Framework for Management and Development of Lake Victoria Basin
Documents and Reports
Legal Issues N/a
The Lake Victoria Basin is considered one of the most important shared natural resource by the Partner States of East Africa. Initially, much of the donor interest focused mainly on the lake, fisheries and fisheries management, ecology, biology, hydrology, water pollution and related natural science concerns. Over time a growing understanding emerged of the need to co-ordinate the many fragmented projects in the area. Despite this, there was weak regional policy framework and lack of agreements on management of the common resources in the lake basin. This resulted in increased level of interest to jointly develop and manage the resources to secure its ecological and economic health.
1
No
9
Lopes. S and Gervasio.H. 2003. Co-Management of Artisanal Fisheries in Mozambique: A case Study of Kwirikwidge Fishing Centre, Angoche District, Nampula Province. Co-management. 2003. 29p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.co-management.org/download/lopes.pdf.
Co-management N/a
The present study is a continuation of a research begun in 1996 in the Kwirikwidge area (Mozambique) and its main objective is to evaluate the present stage of the implementation and the expectations of the co-management of fishing resources in that area. The study was carried out using two types of sources: written and oral.
1
No
10
Government of South Africa. 2005. Policy document: establishment of new fisheries in South Africa. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. 2005. 21p.
Documents and Reports
Legal Issues N/a
The establishment of new fisheries will be addressed in a structured manner by (a) bringing already on-going fishing activities which have emerged without coherent management, or in the absence of formal management altogether, under adequate control. (b) Effectively implementing the Department's policy for development of new fisheries when initiating a new fishery (c) applying the precautionary principle and an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) management with respect to the utilization of resources (sustainability and equity are paramount).
1
No
11
FAO. 2006. Report of the First Session of the Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission. Mombasa, Kenya, 18--20 April 2005. FAO Fisheries Reports-R805, Rome. FAO. 2006.
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/FI/DOCUMENT/r805_advanced/advanced_r805.pdf
Legal Issues N/a
The First Session of the South West Indian Ocean Commission was attended by delegates from Comoros, European Community, France, Kenya, the Republic of Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania. Representatives of the Agulhas Somali Large Marine Ecosystem (ASLME), Commission de l'océan Indien (COI), the World Conservation Union (IUCN), the Republic of Korea, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), the South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in Somalia, the Regional Seas Program of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) also attended the Session as observers.
1
No
12
SEAFDEC. 2006. Supplementary Guidelines on Co-management using Group User Rights, Fishery Statistics, Indicators and Fisheries Refugia, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Bangkok, Thailand. 84 p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.seafdec.org/seafdec_n/publication/pub_details.asp?id=54
Legal Issues N/a
The book presents the guidelines into four subdivision: Co-management Using Group User Rights for Small-scale Fisheries; Use of Indicators for the Sustainable Development and Management of Capture Fisheries; Fishery Statistics for Capture Fisheries; and Use of Fisheries Refugia for Capture Fisheries Management. The first three issues are the results of the programs implemented by SEAFDEC, as identified among the priority issues stipulated in the Resolution and Plan of Action of the Millennium Conference held in 2001, while the guidelines for the Use of Fisheries Refugia for Capture Fisheries Management is a concept developed through the project "Reversing Environmental Degradation Trends in South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand" implemented by UNEP-GEF. Though each of the Guidelines has its own introductory parts, efforts are made to summarize the information for the user's of this book.
1
No
13
Coulthard, Sarah. 2006. Adaptation and survival, or conflict and division: Different reactions to a changing common property resource institution in a South Indian fishery. Presented at "Survival of the Commons: Mounting Challenges and New Realities," the Eleventh Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bali, Indonesia, June 19-23, 2006.
Documents and Reports
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00001868/
Traditional Rights N/a
This paper documents a changing CPR management institution and the reactions of the local fishingsociety to those changes.The paper starts with adescription of the Padu system as it operates at Pulicat lake, and its dual role in conflict reduction and sustainable fishing practice. The Padu system at Pulicat lake is caste and gear specific, andhistorically, Padu has included only the traditional fishing caste 'Pattinaver' communities. The thirdpart of the paper illustrates how the Padu system ischanging. Changes in state fisheries policies andglobal markets for prawn export, have affected both fishing behavior, and the breakdown of caste specificity as a determinant to accessing superior fishing grounds. The fourth part of this paper discusses how people are responding to the increasing instability of the Padu system, and the different reactions shown by traditional and non traditional fishers. The paper concludes with some thoughts for management, and a discussion on the future outlookfor the Padu system.
1
No
14
Grafton, R.Quentin. Social capital and fisheries governance. Ocean and Coastal Management, 2005.
Documents and Reports
Legal Issues N/a
This paper analyzes how social capital influences fisheries governance. Social capital is shown to play a crucial role in promoting trust and co-operation among fishers, and can reduce the 'race to fish'. The effects of bonding, bridging and linking socialcapital are described in terms of six key aspects of fisheries governance and examined in terms of their ability to promote better fisheries management practices. The paper finds that a social capital view of fisheries governance suggests there should be a redirection in priorities and funding away from'top-down' fisheries management towards'co-management' with a focus on engendering rightsand responsibilities for fishers and their communities.
1
No
15
Torell, Magnus. Institutional, Legal and Policy Perspectives on the Management of Aquatic Resources (esp. Fish) and the Aquatic Environment in Wetlands Flood-Plain, Lakes and Rivers in the Mekong River Basin. Presented in the conference "Crossing Boundaries, The Seventh Annual Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 10-14, 1998.
Documents and Reports
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00000171/00/torell.pdf
Legal Issues N/a
The paper is prepared and organised keeping in mind that it is one of several papers of a panel addressing a broad range of issues with regards to the Mekong River region and the sustainable use and development of its natural resources and environment.
1
No
16
Macfadyen, G. 2006. Fisheries policy content and direction in Asian APFIC member countries. Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd.
Documents and Reports
http://www.consult-poseidon.com/reports/Asian%20Policy%20Review%20Final%2005.09.06.doc
Legal Issues N/a
This paper examines trends in fisheries and aquaculture policy in selected countries in Asia. For the countries included in the analysis, policy documents and relevant literature was reviewed and help was sought from fisheries officials/experts in the region, to assess policy status and trends relating to a) the use of development and/or management targets, b) natural resource management issues, c) financial, economic and marketing issues, and d) socio-economic and poverty issues. Some of the specific policy issues examined to see whether they are included in policy documents were: co-management; exploitation of offshore fisheries by local fleets; marine protected areas; subsidies; increases in value-added and exports; poverty reduction; and the use of alternative livelihoods. Individual country information was analysed to generate a regional synthesis of fisheries and aquaculture policy content and direction in the region, and the key drivers for change.
1
No
17
Adhuri, Dedi Supriadi. Does the sea divide or unite Indonesia? Canberra, Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 2003. (Series: RMAP Working Paper, no. 48). (Working Paper)
Documents and Reports
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00001588/01/rmap_wp48.pdf
Traditional Rights N/a
The Indonesian Government argues that the sea bridges the many islands and different peoples of Indonesia. Politically, this might be appropriate as a means of encouraging people to think that wherever and whoever there are, they are united as Indonesians. However, when this ideology is used for maritime resource management, it creates problems. One issue derives from the fact that people do not think that the Indonesian sea is 'free for all' Indonesians. This paper argues that people, however vaguely, talk about 'we' and 'they' in defining who has the right to a particular fishing ground and who should be excluded. By analyzing conflicts that have taken part in different places in Indonesia, it demonstrates that ethnicity and regionalism have been used as the defining factor of 'We' and 'They.' In particular contexts, ethnicity and regionalism define whether fishermen can access marine resources. Thus, at the practical level the sea does not unite Indonesians, and it is in fact, ethnicity and regionalism that divides the Indonesian seas.
1
No
18
Hopewell, John. 2004. “When the shore seine is shot, the whole village eats!” The change in shore seine organization in Valinokkam village and the decline of shore seining in southern Ramnad District, Tamil Nadu, India. University of Amsterdam – September 2004.
Documents and Reports
Traditional Rights N/a
This document focuses on the declining practice of shore seining or "padu" system practiced in the fishing village of Valinokkam in Tamil Nadu, India. The reason could be attributed to declining fish stock due to several reasons like use of mechanised boats resulting in overexploitation of the resources, misuse or breakdown of the community based management system (CBMS) due to socio economic or political changes, introduction of new technologies, expansion into market economies, environmental degradation due to natural events like drought and floods as well.
1
No
19
Anuchiracheeva, S. 2000. The Implementation of Fishing-rights Systems in Southeast Asia: a Case Study in Thailand. Presented in "FishRights99 Conference Fremantle, Western Australia 11-19 November 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, 2000.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/X8985E/x8985e0g.htm#b2-The%20Implementation%20of%20FishingRights%20Systems%20in%20Southeast%20Asia%20a%20Case%20Study%20in%20Thailand%20S.%20Anuchiracheeva
Traditional Rights N/a
This document highlights the prerogatives to make co-management in fisheries successful in South east Asia. Establishment of property rights or fishing rights; co-management concepts and regulations to be integrated in the national fisheries policy and legislation; governmental support by way of decentralisation; control of licences for commercial fisheries; financial support and training to be imparted to local fishermen and active participation by fishermen in matters of planning and implementation in fisheries management activities.
1
No
20
Johnson, Craig. 2000. "Environmental Stress, Economic Risk and Institutional Change: Inshore Fishing and Community-Based Management in Southern Thailand." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millenium", the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, May 31-June 4.
Documents and Reports
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00000281/00/johnsonc041000.pdf
Traditional Rights N/a
Theoretical propositions about the emergence and evolution of common property regimes suggest that individuals will conserve (or at least manage) natural resources when they believe the risks of maintaining existing relations are unacceptably high. Individuals, it is argued, are more likely to overcome problems of malfeasance and free riding when they share both an interest in the new institutional arrangement and a legacy of successful cooperation. A contradictory proposition argues that individuals will ignore or fail to implement rules of resource conservation when the stakes of survival are most extreme. Implicit here is an assertion that the costs and risks of survival are so great that they preclude participation in all but the most vital forms of social interaction. This paper considers these debates by exploring the conditions under which villagers in Southern Thailand implemented and enforced rules of restricted access in a traditional inshore fishery.
1
No
21
2006. Kolleru judgement. SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
Documents and Reports
Traditional Rights N/a
The judgement held that the rights of the traditional fishermen of Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh, India would not be affected and the fish tanks/bunds that were raised within the sanctuary were illegal since the area is "sanctuary"/"protected area" and hence be demolished.
1
No
22
Macfadyen, G., Cacaud, P., Kuemlangan, B. 2005. Policy and legislative frameworks for co-management: Background paper for a workshop on mainstreaming fisheries co-management, held in Cambodia, 9th-12th August 2005. Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Limited. Policy and legislative frameworks for co-management: Background paper for a Regional Workshop on Mainstreaming Fisheries Co-management, held in Cambodia, 9th-12th August 2005
Documents and Reports
http://www.consult-poseidon.com/reports/Poseidon%20Co-management%20Policy%20and%20Legislation%20Report%2012.08.doc
Legal Issues,Co-management N/a
This paper was prepared by Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd., with the support of FAO Development Law Service (LEGN), to serve as a background paper for a workshop on mainstreaming fisheries co-management, held in Cambodia, 9th-12th August 2005. The paper examines the policy and legislative frameworks for co-management in thirteen countries in Asia and the Pacific, and the extent to which these frameworks hinder or support co-management practices.
1
No
23
Aktea. No-1.June 2003.Those lost at sea enter into debate.2-3pp
newsletters
Legal Issues N/a
Exposed to the most violent natural hazards, fishermen are constantly at risk from drowning and their bodies never being recovered. This article is a write up of a discussion in The Brest .It complies the legal formalities in Finland, UK, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and France when a fisherman is lost at the sea.
1
No
24
Rashid, Saifur. 2005. Common Property Rights and Indigenous Fishing Knowledge in the Inland Openwater Fisheries of Bangladesh. The Case of the Koibortta Fishing Community of Kishoregonj. Doctor of Philosophy, Curtin University of Technology.
Documents and Reports
http://adt.curtin.edu.au/theses/available/adt-WCU20051213.092754/unrestricted/01Front.pdf
Traditional Rights N/a
This thesis provides a detailed ethnographic account of one community, the Koibortta fishers of Krishnapur village in the northeast flood plain region of Bangladesh, focusing on their management practices and indigenous fishing knowledge in selected inland common property fisheries
1
No
25
Pokrant, Reeves, McGuire, ‘Riparian Rights and the Organisation of Work and Market Relations among the Inland Fishers of Colonial Bengal, c.1793-1950' in Youssouf Ali and Chu-fa Tsai (eds), Openwater Fisheries of Bangladesh (Dhaka: Universities Press and Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, 1996)
Documents and Reports
Traditional Rights N/a
1
No
26
FAO. 2003. Fisheries Management: The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, No. 4 Supplement 2. FAO, Rome, 2003. 112p.
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4470e/y4470e00.pdf
Fisheries Management N/a
These guidelines have been produced to supplement the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The Code and many international agreements and conferences highlight the many benefits that can be achieved by adopting an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) and elaborate a number of agreed principles and concepts relating to EAF. These guidelines provide guidance on how to translate the economic, social and ecological policy goals and aspirations of sustainable development into operational objectives, indicators and performance measures. They are not seen as a replacement for, but rather an extension of, current fisheries management practices that need to be broadened to take into account the biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems in which fisheries operate. Although there are many gaps in our current knowledge of ecosystems and how they function, these guidelines stress that uncertainty should not prevent the development of operational objectives aimed at improving human well-being as well as protecting and improving the status of marine coastal ecosystems.
1
No
27
Satria, Arif; Yoshiaki Matsuda and Masaaki Sano. 2006. Questioning community based coral reef management systems: Case study of Awig-Awig in Gili Indah, Indonesia. Environment, Development and Sustainability (8): 99-118
Documents and Reports
Traditional Rights N/a
Issues and complexities arising when the fisheries and marine tourism sectors have stakes in an institution governing the coral reefs ecosystem called awig-awig are discussed, awig-awig is a collaquialism meaning ' a local rule'. The community-based management system is commonly recognized as a better approach to governing resources, however, the success of awig-awig in the study area is questionable. Awig-awig fails to deal with the conflict of interest among stakeholders in coastal resource appropriation, despite the community being relatively culturally homogenous.
Asia
Customary Rights,Fisheries Management,Traditional Communities
5
No
28
Cinner, Joshua. 2005. Socioeconomic factors influencing customary marine tenure in the Indo-Pacific. Ecology and Society 10 (1): 36
newsletters
http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss1/art36/
Traditional Rights N/a
This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.
Oceania
Customary Rights,Traditional Communities,Conservation
5
No
29
Hidayat, Ir. Aceng. Property right changes of coral reef management: From a State property regimes towards a sustainable local governance: Lessons from Gili Indah village, West Lombok, Indonesia
newsletters
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00001919/
Traditional Rights N/a
This paper is to explain a case of change of property right regime of coral reef management: from an open access to state property and then to local governance, a case study of Gili Indah West Lombok, Indonesia. It demonstrates the reasons of the change, the ineffectiveness of state property regime, and the emergence of local governance where conflicts are assumed as the triggering factors. The study found out that conflict of interest between two main stakeholders: tourism business operators (TBOs) and fishermen drove the change process. The conflicts initially emerged after Balai Konservasi Sumberdaya Alam (BKSDA) as the executor of the state property regimes was unable to protect the coral reef ecosystems from destructive fishing practice. It has also failed in halting Muroami application that has triggered lasting conflicts between TBOs and fishermen. The failure of the state property regime has led TBOs to take over the protection tasks through constructing local governance. So far, the local governance has been successful in protecting the coral reef resources and forced the users to use the coral reefs in a sustainable manner.
Asia
Customary Rights,Traditional Communities,Fisheries Management
4
No
30
Liese, Christopher, Martin D. Smith, and Randall. A. Kramer. 2007. Open access in a spatially delineated artisanal fishery: the case of Minahasa, Indonesia. Environment and Development Economics 12: 123-143.
newsletters
Traditional Rights N/a
The effects of economic development on the exploitation of renewable resources are investigated in settings where property rights are ill-defined or not enforced.This paper explores potential conservation implications from labor and product market developments, such as enhanced transportation infrastructure. A model is developed that predicts individual fish catch per unit effort based on characteristics of individual fishermen and the development status of their villages. The econometric model is estimated using data from across sectional household survey of artisanal coral reeffishermen in Minahasa,Indonesia, taking account of fishermen heterogeneity.Variation across different villages and across fishermen within the villages is used to explore the effects of development.
Asia
Fisheries Management
3
No
31
Adhuri, Dedi Supriadi. The incident in Dullah Laut: Marine tenure and the politics in village leadership in Maluku, Eastern Indonesia.
newsletters
Traditional Rights N/a
The marine resource management discourses limits its concern for property rights to their role as instruments of resource management. Through the analysis of a conflict over communal marine tenure at Dullah Laut village in Maluku, Eastern Indonesia, this paper highlights the socio-political and economic values of communal marine tenure. It argues that communal marine tenure in Dullah Laut village is not considered merely as an instrument for controlling marine territory and resources but also as a form of 'political capital'.
Asia
Property rights,Fisheries Management
3
No
32
Adhuri, Dedi Supriadi. 2003. Does the sea divide or unite Indonesians? Ethnicity and regionalism from a maritime perspective. Resource management in Asia-Pacific working paper. No. 48. Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program. Research school of Pacific and Asian studies. The Australian National University. Canberra
Documents and Reports
Traditional Rights N/a
The Indonesian Government argues that the sea bridges the many islands and different peoples of Indonesia. Politically, this might be appropriate as a means of encouraging people to think that wherever and whoever there are, they are united as Indonesians. However, when this ideology is used for maritime resource management, it creates problems. One issue derives from the fact that people do not think that the Indonesian sea is ‘free for all’ Indonesians. This paper argues that people, however vaguely, talk about ‘we’ and ‘they’ in defining who has the right to a particular fishing ground and who should be excluded. By analyzing conflicts that have taken part in different places in Indonesia, it demonstrates that ethnicity and regionalism have been used as the defining factor of ‘We’ and ‘They.’ In particular contexts, ethnicity and regionalism define whether fishermen can access marine resources. Thus, at the practical level the sea does not unite Indonesians, and it is in fact, ethnicity and regionalism that divides the Indonesian seas.
Asia
Traditional Fishing,Fisheries Management
3
No
33
Wasinrapee, Puree. 2006. The Moken: Today and tomorrow - building a sustainable livelihood for the Moken community in Surin Islands Marine National Park. Submiited as Master's Thesis to the Department of Environment, Technology and Social Studies. Roskilde University.
Documents and Reports
Traditional Rights N/a
The thesis seeks to explain the feasibility of the tourism activities proposed by the Andaman Pilot Project (APP) for the Moken living in the Surin Island Marine National Park (SP). The Moken, who are a group of indigenous sea nomads who used to wander around the area in the past, has undergone enormous changes in their life – from sea wandering to permanent settlement in a protected area.

The case study investigation in the Moken village has examined the adaptability of the Moken whether they can cope with a range of changes that take place in the community as a result of tourism on the SP and the implementation of the tourism activities proposed by the APP. In addition, the study has also examined the feasibility of the tourism activities whether they can establish the Moken a sustainable livelihood. This examination has focused on one hand on the institutional constraints that may obstruct the implementation of the tourism activities and on the sustainability of the project on the other.
Asia
Traditional Communities,Conservation
3
No
34
Arunotai, Narumon. 2006. Moken traditional knowledge: an unrecognized form of natural resources management and conservation. International Social Science Journal, Volume 58, Number 187. 139-150.
newsletters
Traditional Rights N/a
This article presents the traditional knowledge of an ethnic group of sea nomads generally known in Thailand as Chao Lay. The Moken once led a nomadic marine life. They have developed their traditional knowledge and belief system over several centuries. This practical knowledge has been obtained through interaction with local ecosystems and from observation and experimentation in everyday life. The Moken have intimate knowledge relating to the sea and the forest, and they have elaborated boat-building skills and other technologies that allow them to make their living from the sea, coastal areas, and islands. This traditional knowledge and attendant practices represent a form of natural resources management and conservation. It comprises: 1) knowledge and skills that depend upon simple technologies that have minimal impact on the natural environment and its resources; 2) a nomadic life with frequent displacements that allow the Moken to rotate their foraging grounds and prevent overuse and degradation of specific areas; 3) knowledge about numerous forest and marine species - their characteristics, behaviour, habitats and eco-niches - which enables the Moken to make use of a diversity of local ecosystems; 4) a hunter-gatherer livelihood focusing primarily upon subsistence, with little accumulation of material goods, and finally 5) a philosophy and belief system that holds that natural resources are not individually owned, but rather are to be shared by everyone without restrictions on access.
Asia
Traditional Communities,Traditional Knowledge,Conservation
4
No
35
Ruddle, Kenneth. 1998. Traditional community-based coastal marine fisheries management in Viet Nam. Ocean & Coastal Management 40 : 1-22
newsletters
Traditional Rights N/a
Despite more than a century of colonial occupation, radical political and administrative change, and more recent motorization of fleets and gear introductions, there remains in Viet Nam a still functioning tradition of local stakeholder organizations (van chai) by which marine fishing communities historically regulated the fishery and ensured mutual assistance for their membership. Such systems remain strong in many coastal communities, especially in the Central and Southern regions, largely because their moral authority and leadership is deeply rooted in and legitimated by traditional religion, expressed in the community 'whale' shrine. In 1963, one such community organization, in Binh Thuan Province of the Central Region, comprehensively documented its traditional regulations to inform future generations. This paper analyzes that document, supplemented and complemented by information from seven other marine fisheries van chai in the Central and Southern regions.
Asia
Customary Rights,Fisheries Management
5
No
36
Ruddle, K., E. Hviding and R.E. Johannes. 1992. “Marine Resources Management in the Context of Customary Tenure”. Marine Resource economics. 7 (1992): 249-273
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Although customary marine tenure (CMT) systems for the management of local marine resources occur throughout the world, compared with other models of fisheries management they remain relatively little known. The Pacific Basin is especially rich in CMT systems which play key roles in overall social, economic and cultural life of societies. Based on a Solomon Island example, the authors examine the organizational principles and potentials of CMT systems to provide sustainable yields and equitable access to resources, their resilience to external pressures, and mechanisms for ensuring focal autonomy in resource control. Next they demonstrate that CMT systems are an expression of traditional ecological knowledge, and show the importance of such knowledge to scientific research and the planning of resource management. Finally, they suggest priorities for research on CMT systems.
Oceania
Traditional Knowledge,Customary Tenure
4
No
37
Hviding, E and K. Ruddle. A Regional Assessment Of The Potential Role Of Customary Marine Tenure (Cmt)
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
This is a report based on a consultancy taken up by the authors. It is based on information derived from formal presentations and discussion statements by country representatives during the one day workshop "People, Society and Pacific Islands Fisheries Development and Management" at the 23rd RTMF, amplified by in depth discussion with national and regional fisheries staff. The work was carried out in the South Pacific where a number of factors combine to make CMT systems a potentially valuable alternative for inshore fisheries management. According to the authors, in most island nations, rural people frequently attempt to gain the recognition of government officers and policies for their customary resource rights, and for their traditional fisheries related knowledge. In many countries, among them Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Cook Islands,
Tuvalu, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), there are numerous examples of traditional leaders formulating and enforcing diverse fisheries regulations through a variety of channels. In many cases, these concerns and associated measures are brought through the successive levels of formal government channels, often legislated as bylaws, and sometimes even ending up in Parliament. Although traditional knowledge might be accurate as far as predicting the seasonal abundance of fish or shells (particularly trochus) was concerned, it must often be supplemented by Western science to convince local people of the need for minimum size regulations. Codification of CMT is difficult and possibly not desirable. Tradition is seen to be constantly changing based on current circumstances with strong roots in history. From discussions, there appeared to be an emergence of an approach of "joint management" that has national government setting basic rules and principles while simultaneously recognising important aspects of customary resource rights, and local "government" handling locally appropriate management within this legislative framework.
Oceania
Vanuatu,Traditional Knowledge,Solomon Is,Samoa,Palau,Micronesia,Fiji,Customary Rights,Cooks Is,Community Based Management
5
No
38
Ruddle, K. 1998. The context of policy design for existing community-based fisheries management systems in the Pacific Islands. Ocean and Coastal Management 40(1998): 105-126
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vanuatu
Community-based fisheries management is being widely promoted as an alternative to centralized systems based on the familiar bioeconomic models that have manifestly failed to prevent a near catastrophic overexploitation of fish stocks worldwide. The Pacific Island Region probably contains the world's greatest concentration of still-functioning traditional community-based systems for managing coastal-marine fisheries and other resources. It has been frequently asserted that many such traditional systems provide both a firm foundation for future coastal fisheries management in the Pacific Islands Region, as well as a conceptual framework for managing fisheries elsewhere. Although now seemingly self-evident to fisheries development "experts", such assertions remain largely unverified. Whereas it is a relatively straightforward task to distil basic "design principles" from a sample of systems, it is far more complex to analyze the multi-sectoral national environment in which they function, especially when their history is taken into account. In other words, it is far less widely appreciated that many contemporary community-based fisheries management systems are the end products of a long process of change and adaptation to external pressures and constraints. In this article, the author addresses some of the broader contextual issues that should be appreciated in policy making with respect to a potential modern role for traditional management systems in general, and in the analysis of a future role for any given system. First, the principal external factors that have caused change in systems are described and exemplified. The recognition of the potential role of existing community-based fisheries systems, and attempts to act on it, is summarized for some Pacific Island nations, with a focus on the complex problem of reconciling customary and statutory legal systems, In the final section the author examines three principal national policy alternatives regarding the potential role of existing local fisheries management systems, together with three main criteria for determining whether or not a system can be adapted to fulfil modern requirements.
Oceania
Vanuatu,Samoa,PNG,Palau,Micronesia,Kiribati,Fiji,Cooks Is
5
List and discussion on change factors affecting traditional CBM with examples and details from different countries in that region
No
39
Adams, T. 1998. The interface between traditional and modern methods of fishery management in the Pacific Islands. Ocean & Coastal Management 40 (1998) 121-142
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cook Islands
The interactions between government and community in the management of reef and lagoon Fisheries in the Pacific Islands region are described, and recommendations made concerning the types of interaction that are most constructive, and which should be encouraged in future. The argument is illustrated with three examples of positive government-community actions from the Pacific Islands - a Cook Islands community-moderated individual transferable quota system, a flexible arrangement in Fiji leading to an effective marine protected area, and a community-initiated gillnet ban in Fiji Ð and by a general discussion of negative interactions. The tendency of biologically trained fishery researchers to discount the role of the fishing community itself when describing and quantifying fisheries should be avoided, and there is a need to distinguish between those local initiatives arising from views that have evolved over centuries, and those arising from modern entrepreneurialism. It is suggested that a major advantage of community-mediated management is its diversity
Oceania
trochus,MPA,Marine Reserves,Fiji,Cooks Is
5
No
40
Dalzell, P. 1998. The role of archaeological and cultural-historical records in long-range coastal fisheries resources management strategies and policies in the Pacific Islands. Ocean & Coastal Management 40 (1998) 237-252
Documents and Reports
Community based management Pacific Island
The usefulness of conventional fisheries science for long-term fisheries management and policies in the resource-poor islands of the pacific is very limited. Fishery managers can, however, make use of such alternative sources of information as archaeological and historical data to develop fishery management initiatives. Most Pacific Islands were settled by humans Over the last three millennia, although human settlement in Western Melanesia dates from the Late Pleistocene, a period of about 40 millennia. Archaeological studies over the past half century contain information on the long-term subsistence exploitation of fish and invertebrates from near shore coral reefs and lagoons. Molluscs appear to have been a very important food source for early human colonists in the Pacific Islands, but declines in abundance through harvest pressure and environmental changes forced a greater reliance on fin-fish capture and on agriculture. There is no firm evidence from the archaeological record to suggest that long-term Subsistence exploitation of reef fish populations has had any serious negative effects on abundance or structure of reef fish communities. Sources for more recent historical information are also exemplified and briefly examined for their usefulness in assessing the impacts of commercial fishing. It is argued that fishery managers who adopt a data-less approach to fishery management could profitably use these sources of information to enrich their assessment of the impacts of various management scenarios.
Oceania
Reef Fisheries
4
No
41
Hviding, E. 1998. Contextual flexibility: present status and future of customary marine tenure in Solomon Islands. Ocean & Coastal Management 40 (1998) 253-269
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
The author discusses some long-term continuity in the socio-political dynamics of customary marine tenure in the Melanesian South Pacific. Building on field research material from Solomon Islands, and paying close attention to the pan-Melanesian concept of kastom, the author exemplifies how customary marine tenure and its social contexts are challenged and transformed by external economic and political pressures. These challenges and transformations are discussed with reference to the emerging legislative contexts of customary tenure rights. General trends are identified for Solomon Islands, particularly regarding the management potential of customary marine tenure. It is argued that the relationship between external challenges and local transformations is not one-sided. Certain modern pressures may lead to organizational innovation and reinforce the political base of customary control over marine resources, as expressed by present systems of customary marine tenure.
Oceania
Customary Rights
5
No
42
Graham, T and N. Idechong. 1998. Reconciling customary and constitutional law: managing marine resources in Palau, Micronesia. Ocean & Coastal Management 40 (1998) 143-164
Documents and Reports
Community based management Palau
As in much of Oceania, Palauan society of the pre-European contact era practiced sophisticated systems of tenure and management that extended to the fish and other resources of the surrounding coral reefs and lagoons. With its colonial experiences, the opening up of economic and social links with the outside world, and the introduction of highly efficient fishing technologies, Palau’s customary marine resource management systems have eroded. Like most Pacific Island countries, the Republic of Palau only recently gained independence from a western administrating nation. Its constitution, being based on western models, emphasizes democratic and egalitarian ideals. At the same time, it seeks to preserve and revitalize many aspects of customary Palauan society, particularly its institutions and processes of chiefly authority. These customs, however, are based on titled elitism and other principles contrary to those emphasized in the constitution. Through a combination of a series of court decisions that illustrate the incompatibility of the two bodies of law and a lack of any legislative initiative that could reconcile them, the exercise of purely customary authority has been relegated to matters of only minor importance. Thus, as in many Pacific Island nations, independence has contributed to the erosion of traditional tenure and management systems. Some recent village-level initiatives, however, may portend an important shift back toward decentralized, if not exactly traditional, control over the use of Palau’s inshore resources. The constitution’s critical provision that inshore resources are owned by the 16 states has allowed these relatively new village-level political and social units, with their mix of titled and elected leaders, to exert increasing control over inshore resources. They have done so in response to increasing resource scarcity owing to increasing fishing pressure, increasing demand by the booming marine-based tourism sector, and impending resource degradation from physical development. The effectiveness of these emerging local-level management regimes will be determined largely by the degree of support offered by the national government. Little has been forthcoming. The executive branch has been hesitant to support the marine property rights of the states, the judiciary has interpreted the constitution in a manner that has limited the authority of traditional leaders, and the legislature has not enacted laws that might guide the other two branches in interpreting and implementing the constitution with regard to either customary law or state ownership of marine resources.
Oceania
Palau,Customary Rights
4
No
43
Rakotoson, L.R. and K. Tanner. 2006. Community-based governance of coastal zone and marine resources in Madagascar. Ocean & Coastal Management 49 (2006) 855–872
Documents and Reports
Community based management Madagascar
On account of the ‘‘legal transplant’’ of French civil law into traditional customary law in Madagascar, the traditional social code generally known as ‘‘Dina’’ has coexisted with the modern law since the pre-colonial era and has conditioned the implementation of such law. The concept and use of Dina has been influenced by that process. This paper illustrates the role of Dina as a mechanism for reconciling modern decentralized and traditional governance of marine resources and the coastal zones in Madagascar. Democratic participation is important for enforcing the regulations governing marine resources and coastal zones. As law should be the will of people themselves, it is therefore necessary to develop legislation in community forum such as through Dina. It is especially critical that regulations be imbued with community aspiration and culture so that the population can respect laws freely. The three cases cited in this paper illustrate the different ways in which Dina may be used depending on the interests of the actors. Integrating the ‘legal’ and the ‘legitimate’ is a big challenge. In some cases, this legal mechanism is not successful at protecting local community or fishermen rights. Given the potential for integrated coastal zone management and community-based management, Dina may be strengthened in order to more effectively protect local people’s rights.
Africa
Traditional Management Systems,Regulations,Madagascar,Governance,Community Based Management
4
No
44
Zann, L.P. 1999. A new (old) approach to inshore resources management in Samoa. Ocean & Coastal Management 42 (1999) 569-590.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Samoa
Increasing populations and development in many of the small Pacific Island nations have placed heavy pressures on coastal environments and on inshore fisheries. The population of Samoa, in the Southwestern Pacific, has increased 5}6-fold in the past 150 years. Wetlands, lagoons and coral reefs have been seriously degraded because of inappropriate land-use and fisheries practices and recent catastrophic cyclones, and many fish and invertebrate stocks have declined in the past 10-15 years. A research program was established in 1990 to determine the status of the coastal and inshore environments, to monitor inshore subsistence and commercial fisheries, to determine the status of stocks, and to identify potential management actions. An inventory of inshore resources was produced using aerial photography and ground and underwater surveys. Fisheries catch and effort were established through a national census, questionnaire surveys in households and schools, and creel and market surveys. A major aid program was commenced in 1995 by the Australian government (AusAID) to assist Samoa to establish an effective inshore fisheries and environment management program. A key strategy was the devolution of powers in inshore fisheries management back from the national government to the villages and local fishers. A culturally appropriate co-management model was developed and tested, and has now been adopted by many villages. An inshore fisheries extension capability was developed within Samoa's Fisheries Division to assist villagers to undertake their own environmental and fisheries surveys; identify major factors affecting fisheries; identify ways of reducing these factors; establish an agreed (between village council and national government) plan of management and regulations; and establish their own fisheries management bodies. By the end of 1997 the Inshore Fisheries Extension Service had been established and trained; 26 villages had entered the co-management program and established their own plans of management; and 20 fisheries reserves had been established. The techniques for inshore environmental and fisheries assessment and management developed for Samoa are applicable, with appropriate modification, to subsistence fishing communities elsewhere in the South Pacific.
Oceania
Subsistence Fisheries,Samoa,Resources Management,Fisheries Management,Co-management
4
No
45
Tseng, Huan-Sheng and Ching-Hsiewn Ou. 2010. The evolution and trend of the traditional fishing rights. Ocean & Coastal Management 53 (2010) 270-278
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
“Traditional fishing rights” were once universally accepted by the international community. However, under a regime of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1982, these rights were treated as a reasonable allocation of the surplus of the total allowable catch (TAC) or dependence on phase-out arrangements in bilateral fisheries agreements. This has caused the gradual marginalization of traditional fishing rights. This paper analyzes the transformations and trends affecting the development of fishing industries around the world, especially the growth and decline of traditional fishing rights and EEZs
Asia
UNCLOS,Traditional Fisheries,Fishing Rights
5
No
46
Sultana, P and P.M. Thompson. 2007. Community based fisheries management and fisher livelihoods: Bangladesh Case Studies. Hum Ecol 35 527-546
Documents and Reports
Community based management Bangladesh
Poor fishers in Bangladesh have been disadvantaged by policies that favored powerful people leasing fishing rights. Community-based management was expected to improve fisher access, livelihoods, and the sustainability of fisheries. The impacts of community management in three floodplain waterbodies differed according to the environment and property rights. Where a set of fishers jointly held exclusive rights to a small enclosed lake they increased production by stocking fish and shared the returns. This strategy is productive but attracts competition for profits and fish consumption was unchanged. Access to capture fisheries in floodplain waterbodies enables the poor to catch diverse small fish for their consumption. Yet sustainability requires limits on fishing. Fish sanctuaries were respected, yet catches per day fell when more people from several villages increased fishing effort in a large wetland, while a tightly knit community restored the fishery in a smaller floodplain. Community organizations will need recognition of their long-term use rights to overcome future threats.
Asia
Inland Fisheries,Fishing Rights,Fishing Effort,Community Organizations,Community Based Management,Bangladesh
4
No
47
Thomas, F.R. 2001. Remodelling marine tenure on the atolls: A case study from Western Kiribati, Micronesia. Marine Ecology 29: 399-423
Documents and Reports
Community based management Kiribati
Kiribati underwent dramatic changes in laws governing access to intertidal resources as a result of colonial intrusion. In recent years, the impact of population growth, urbanization, more efficient extractive technologies, and expanding market opportunities have prompted island councils to adopt by-laws to protect existing resources. However, there remains the challenge of enforcing territorial rights. Several approaches that might lead to a viable tenurial system include alternative short-term gains, cooperative ventures, and the judicious application of TEK (Traditional Ecological Knowledge) as an instrument for resource management. The first two are seen as preconditions for the success of the third because of the insights they provide within the context of behavioral ecology. This theoretical approach and associated models caution us from essentializing the environmental outcomes of human behavior by showing the lack of a resource conservation strategy. These aforementioned solutions for ensuring sustainable development of the intertidal zone are discussed based on fieldwork among several atoll communities in Western Kiribati with a focus on shellfish gathering.
Oceania
Traditional Knowledge,Shellfish,Micronesia,Kiribati
4
No
48
Colding, J and C. Folke. 2001. Social Taboos: ‘‘Invisible’’ Systems of Local Resource Management and Biological Conservation. Ecological Applications 11: 584-600
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Social taboos exist in most cultures, both Western and non-Western. They are good examples of informal institutions, where norms, rather than governmental juridical laws and rules, determine human behavior. In many traditional societies throughout the world, taboos frequently guide human conduct toward the natural environment. Based on a survey of recent literature, the authors synthesize information on such taboos. The authors refer to them as ‘‘resource and habitat taboos’’ (RHTs). Examples are grouped in six different categories depending on their potential nature conservation and management functions. The authors compare RHTs with contemporary measures of conservation and identify and discuss some key benefits that may render them useful in partnership designs for conservation and management. The authors conclude that many RHTs have functions similar to those of formal institutions for nature conservation in contemporary society but have not been sufficiently recognized in this capacity. The authors suggest that designs for conservation of biological diversity and its sustainable use in developing countries focus more on informal institutions, like social taboos, because they may offer several advantages compared to conventional measures. These include non-costly, voluntary compliance features implicit in the taboo system.
World
5
No
49
Cinner, J.E December. 2007. The role of taboos in conserving coastal resources in Madagascar. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #22 –, p 15-23.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Madagascar
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Africa
Marine Resources,Coastal Resources
4
No
50
WWF-Pakistan. 2005. Community based fisheries management: case study of fishing practices in Ganz, District Gwadar (Balochistan coast). July 2005.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Pakistan
A community-based approach appears to be an important factor in managing fisheries successfully, since it increases the commitment of fisher folk to the system and allows the resource to flourish. Ganz is a small village in Gwadar District of Makran coast where the community has taken steps to prevent their fishery resources from unsustainable exploitation. A brief study in the area has been conducted to document their practice. Ganz is a 200 year old settlement of about 600 households. The main profession of the local people is fishing and 95% of the local people are engaged in fishing. The village is largely homogeneous in social and economic terms. Alternative livelihood resources are almost non-existent in Ganz. This case study is an attempt to document the conflict between two communities, one who was interested in sustainable resource use and other who was exploiting the resource. The case study demonstrates conclusively the merits of community managed fishing territory. With a well-defined boundary of the natural resource, the local community is empowered to manage and sustainably utilise the resource. This community-based approach, though it does not have a legal framework yet, has proved to be a successful approach for natural resource management.
Asia
Community Based Management
5
No
51
Govan, H. 2009. Achieving the potential of locally managed marine areas in the South Pacific. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #25 – July 2009: 16-25
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
In the Pacific Islands, ever-increasing pressures on limited natural resources are mainly the result of rapid population increases. Soon, these pressures will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. One key to successfully containing such pressures could be locally managed marine areas, which build on existing community strengths in traditional knowledge, customary tenure and governance, and are combined with a local awareness of the need for action. However, the success of the locally managed marine areas depends on broadening their scope so that they serve as building blocks for the integrated management of island communities. The implications of this are examined in detail
N. America
Traditional Knowledge,Governance,Customary Tenure,Climate Change
4
No
52
Sano, Y. 2008. The role of social capital in a common property resource system in coastal areas: A case study of community-based coastal resource management in Fiji. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin (December): 19-32
Documents and Reports
Community based management Fiji
This article analyses how bonding and bridging social capital function in community-based coastal resource management as common-pool resource management in Fiji. Strong bonds among villagers help disseminate information and knowledge in the community. A kinship-based village structure contributes to a high
degree of accountability among those villagers nominated as fish wardens, who are responsible for monitoring marine resources. Increased cooperation between non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and local villages has encouraged “weak ties”, which allows villagers to gain access to new knowledge and information
on coastal resource management. When a non-governmental organisation adopted an “individual participatory approach”, by allowing individual villagers to participate in management, a project was more successful than hitherto in incorporating resource users’ knowledge and experience into management planning.
That resulted in a higher congruence between institutions and local conditions.
Oceania
participatory approach,Fiji,Community Based Management
4
No
53
Baird, Ian. 2000 . Integrating Community-Based Fisheries Co-Management and Protected Areas Management in Lao PDR: Opportunities for Advancement and Obstacles to Implementation. Evaluating Eden Series, Discussion Paper No.14. IIED
Documents and Reports
Community based management Laos
In this paper the author argues that community-based co-management of wild-capture fisheries has considerable potential for contributing to the improvement of biodiversity conservation in PAs, relations between PA staff and local people, and even the management of forest and terrestrial wildlife resources. He uses the example of Lao PDR. The co-management of natural resources by villagers is government policy in Laos, and there is considerable support for creating cooperative management systems with regards to natural resources, including aquatic resources. The co-management of aquatic resources, including fisheries, has apparently succeeded in increasing fish stocks, and villager fish catches, in Khong District, Champasak Province, southern Laos. Although scientific evidence to support villager claims that aquatic resources have significantly benefited from their co-management efforts is still largely lacking, villagers from some communities with aquatic resource co-management systems, such as Kokpadek and Chan villages, have reported that increased fish catches has had unexpected spin-off benefits in terms of terrestrial wildlife and forest management and conservation. The author considers obstacles to the implementation of fisheries co-management in PAs and suggests that that fisheries management issues should be made a priority for PA managers in Lao PDR and Cambodia, and other countries in mainland Southeast Asia.
Asia
Lao PDR,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Co-management
5
No
54
Friedlander, A., K. Poepoe, K. Helm , P. Bartram, J. Maragos and I. Abbott. 2000. Application of Hawaiian traditions to community-based fishery management. Proceedings 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia, Vol. 2.
Documents and Reports
Community based management United States
The community in the Ho‘olehu Hawaiian Homesteads on the island of Moloka‘i is strengthening community influence and accountability for the health and long-term sustainability of their marine resources through revitalization of local traditions and resource knowledge. The traditional system in Hawai‘i emphasized social and cultural controls on fishing with a code of conduct that was strictly enforced. Local resource monitors, in conjunction with visiting scientists, are creating a predictive management tool based loosely on the Hawaiian moon calendar to guide responsible fishing practices. Community-sanctioned norms for fishing conduct are being reinforced through continual feedback based on local resource monitoring, education, and peer pressure. Hawaiian community building and proper cultural protocols are essential to understand and revitalize marine conservation traditions.
N. America
Traditional based management system,Hawaii,Community Based Management
5
No
55
Nasuchon, Nopparat. 2009. Coastal Management and Community Management In Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand, with A Case Study of Thai Fisheries Management. Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea Office of Legal Affairs, The United Nations, New York,
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
This report reviews approaches to costal management and community management in Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. It includes the case study on fisheries management in Thailand. Malaysia is the only one country with administration of coastal zone management by the federal Government and is strongest in surveillance and enforcement but lacks community based management. Community management in Vietnam established from community needs that they want to protected their resource and also had community traditions to supported resource management. Cambodia is very young in coastal management and almost of aquatic policy is focused on fresh water because close to 75 percent of aquatic protein come from the Tonle Sap and Mekong rivers. Thailand has decentralized fiscal responsibility to the local level for the collection of taxes and administration of funds. Fisheries communities have the right to manage their resources; an approach which was promoted by the Department of Fisheries. With respect to fisheries management, Thailand faces challenges of overexploitation of the resources and a lack of real data on the number of fishing gears; both of which must be addressed so as to allow effective fisheries management.
Asia
Vietnam,Thailand,Malaysia,Fisheries Management,coastal zone management,Cambodia
3
More about coastal zone management practices
No
56
Hickey, F.R. 2006 . Traditional marine resource management in Vanuatu: Acknowledging, supporting and strengthening indigenous management systems. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin. Pp 11-23
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vanuatu
Much of the marine related traditional knowledge held by fishers in Vanuatu relates to increasing catches while managing resources of cultural, social and subsistence value. Traditional beliefs and practices associated with fisheries and their management follow natural cycles of resource abundance, accessibility, and respect for customary rules enshrined in oral traditions. Many management related rules that control fishers’ behaviours are associated with the fabrication and deployment of traditional fishing gear. A number of traditional beliefs, including totemic affiliations and the temporal separation of agricultural and fishing practices, serve to manage marine resources. Spatial-temporal refugia and areas of symbolic significance create extensive networks of protected freshwater, terrestrial and marine areas. The arrival of Europeans initiated a process of erosion and transformation of traditional cosmologies and practices related to marine resource management. More recently, the forces of development and globalisation have emerged to continue this process. The trend from a primarily culturally motivated regime of marine resource management to a more commercially motivated system is apparent, with the implementation and sanctioning of taboos becoming increasingly less reliant on traditional beliefs and practices. This paper reviews a number of traditional marine resource management beliefs and practices formerly found in Vanuatu, many of which remain extant today, and documents the transformation of these systems in adapting to contemporary circumstances. By documenting and promoting traditional management systems and their merits, it is hoped to advocate for a greater recognition, strengthening and support for these indigenous systems in Vanuatu and the region
Oceania
Traditional Practice,Traditional Management,Traditional Knowledge,Community Based Management
5
No
57
Weiant, P and S. Aswani. 2006 . Early effects of a community-based marine protected area on the food security of participating households. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin, pp 16-31
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
There is general agreement among conservation practitioners that community-based marine protected areas (CB-MPAs) can improve food security in coastal communities. However, little attention has been given to how communities respond to CB-MPAs, particularly how households try to meet their livelihood needs following the establishment of a restrictive management regime. In this paper, the authors explore the early effects of a CB-MPA geared toward the management of marine resources harvested by women, as measured by perceived income and food availability. They strive to better understand (1) the contribution of women’s fishing activities to livelihood needs, particularly the harvest of blood cockles (Anadara granosa) and mud clams (Polymesoda spp.) (the species under management); (2) differences in how households respond to a CB-MPA; and (3) the relationship between food security and certain aspects of reef health. To illustrate our case, they draw upon their research experience with social and biological impact assessments and their experience in establishing marine protection in the Western Solomon Islands.
Oceania
Women,Solomon Is,Shellfish,MPA,Food Security,Community Based Management
4
No
58
Kearney, J.F. Community-Based Fisheries Management in the Bay of Fundy: Sustaining Communities Through Resistance and Hope. No citation available
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
Communities along the Atlantic Coast have relied on the fishery resource for centuries. Recent declines in fish stock, exclusion of First Nation communities, and government policies that favor high-cost allocation of the fishery have threatened the economy, vitality and well-being of coastal communities. This case study describes several powerful tools that were used to gain access to the fishery by local communities. These tools include organization, protest, and litigation. It describes the efficacy of local knowledge collected and presented using new GIS technologies in providing alternative management priorities and strategies.
N. America
Local knowladge,GIS,Fisheries,Coastal Communities
4
Use of relatively recent tools to prove traditional knowledge
No
59
Fetherston, E.H. 2005. Sustainability Certification in Community-Based Fisheries. Masters project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Environmental Management degree in The Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences of Duke University
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
Mismanagement of global fisheries resources has an overwhelmingly negative effect on the survival of community-based fisheries. In developing countries, community based fishing is a socially as well as economically valuable activity providing much needed employment and income in areas where there are few alternatives for either. In order to promote sustainability in these areas, the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) are attempting to apply their sustainable seafood ecolabeling program to community-based fisheries. The MSC and WWF examined ten community-based fisheries in 2000, including Prainha do Canto Verde, a fishing village in northeastern Brazil. Though the community harvested lobster in a sustainable manner, the larger fishery did not. The national lobster fishery in Brazil covers over 150,000 square kilometers and is characterized by illegal, unsustainable fishing practices and poor enforcement. As a result, the lobster stock remains in serious decline and faces the possibility of collapse. This failing stock health prevented the MSC from considering Prainha do Canto Verde for sustainability certification. Under the MSC, a sustainable product can never come from an unsustainable fishery, despite pockets of good management and environmentally responsible practices. Currently, the MSC is powerless to promote sustainable practices in community based fisheries because the criteria relate directly to the sustainability of the product. By certifying small-scale communities that harvest sustainably within an admittedly unsustainable system, economic incentives for other communities to change their behaviour could develop, to the benefit of the larger fishery. Recognizing the constraints inherent in the MSC, this project proposes alternative approaches to promoting the welfare of communities and the sustainability of their fisheries.
Latin America
Small Scale Fisheries,MSC,ECOLABELING,certification,Brazil
4
No
60
Mantjoro, E. 1996. Traditional management of communal-property resources: the practice of the Sasi system. Ocean & Coastal Management, 32(1996): 17-37.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
Throughout the feudal era up until the early 1970s a traditional management system was in effect in eastern Indonesian areas. However, this system was steadily replaced by centralized government control. This transformation had two impacts: (1) it resulted in conflicts among fishers regarding resource use; and (2) overexploitation of fisheries occurred in some fishing grounds. Recently, however, there has been a growing interest in reconsidering the adoption of the traditional system of fisheries resources management, with a slight modification towards a co-management system. Based on case study data this article describes the practice of traditional management of communal-property fisheries resources with particular reference to the Sasi system. The Sasi system is considered as effective in protecting and conserving fisheries resources in the coastal waters of a community. The continued existence of the system is supported by three elements: (1) a well-established traditional community organization; (2) an informal government endorsement of the Petuanan territory as a communal-property right; and (3) an attitude of compliance and cultural value attributed to the familial relationships existing among fishers.
Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Indonesia,Conflicts,Community Based Management
4
No
61
Luttinger, N.1997. Community-based coral reef conservation in the Bay Islands of Honduras. Ocean & Coastal Management, 36:11-22
Documents and Reports
Community based management Honduras
The evolution of a community-based marine conservation effort in the Bay Islands serves as a valuable example to all islands that face similarly conflicting economic and environmental pressures. Like many small developing tropical islands, the main island of Roatdm is undergoing rapid development to accommodate a surge in nature tourism. As the traditional fish and shrimping industries have dwindled, the island's economic base has become increasingly dependent on the growth of reefbased tourism. With pre-existing environmental policies that were insufficient in scope as well as in implementation, the coral reef ecosystem began to suffer severe impacts. Recognizing the critical importance of maintaining the health and quality of this system, yet with no support from the national or local governments, two communities organized among themselves to create and manage a marine protected area. While several recent developments threaten its continued success, this case study nevertheless provides valuable lessons concerning the early processes of building consensus and reserve organization, as well as future potential issues that may arise and threaten such efforts
Central America
Tourism,MPA,Coral Reefs,Community Based Management
4
No
62
Aswani, S. 2011 . Socioecological Approaches for Combining Ecosystem-Based and Customary Management in Oceania. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Journal of Marine Biology, Volume 2011, Article ID 845385, 13 pages, doi:10.1155/2011/845385
newsletters
Community based management Solomon Islands
This paper summarizes various integrated methodological approaches for studying Customary Management for the purpose of designing hybrid CM-Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) systems in Oceania. Using marine conservation in the Western Solomon Islands as an example, the paper illustrates various interdisciplinary human ecological methods that can assist in designing hybrid conservation programs. The study of human-environmental interactions from a socio-ecological perspective allows us to discern people’s understanding of their immediate environment, differential forms of local resource governance and use (e.g., sea tenure and foraging strategies), and existing conflicts between various stakeholders, among other social and ecological factors. More generally, the paper shows how coupled studies of natural and social processes can foster management regimes that are more adaptive and effective and that move toward holistic, ecosystem-based marine conservation in the Pacific Island region.
Oceania
Traditional based management system,Solomon Is,Community Based Management
4
No
63
Oxfam. 2003. Fisheries management in Community Based Coastal Resource Management. A publication of CBCRM Resource Center and Oxfam Great Britain. ISBN 971-91716-8-5, May 2003
books
Community based management Philippines
This is one of three volumes reporting the three year capacity building programme located within Oxfam GB’s Community Based Coastal Resource Management Programme in 1996. The workshop that the resource book is based was attended mainly by practitioners of CBCRM. It begins by defining and explaining fisheries management from a CBCRM perspective and describes processes in setting up fisheries management. Workshop groups discussed processes and strategies in fisheries management and the lessons learned have been summarized. There are also case studies from the different partner organizations.
Asia
Philippines,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
5
Very useful with lots of diagrams and explanations
No
64
Kurien, J. 2003.. The blessings of the Commons: Small-scale fisheries, Community property rights and Coastal natural assets. International Conference on Natural AssetsTagaytay City, The Philippines.
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
Actions of low income communities that depend on natural resources for their daily livelihoods indicate that they are more caring and concerned about the nurturing of common resources found in nature. In this paper, the way rights over natural resources have changed from community rights to open access (Part 1) and from open access to community rights (Part 2), are discussed. The author points out that coastal communities and fisherfolk should certainly be active participants in designing their own future since they generally have a much clearer conception of the important constraints under which they operate as well as a more holistic understanding of the opportunities before them, Where, however a tradition for collective action is lacking, or the political space for it is limited, mobilization of communities for participatory planning and action may prove to be a long process. Restoring community rights does not necessarily lead to proper management for several reasons. Reviving ecologically sophisticated fishing technologies is a prerequisite for reviving the prospective of living resources of the seas as natural assets.
Asia
Sasi,Rights,open access,Kerala,Community Based Management,Artificial Reef
5
Useful discussion
No
65
Salagrama, V. 2003. Traditional Community Based Management Systems (TCBMS) in two fishing villages in East Godavari district Andhra Pradesh, India. Case study for World Bank/SIFAR-funded project “Study of Good Management Practice in Sustainable Fisheries”. Submitted to IDDRA Ltd., UK.
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
The study aims to understand the evolution of the community governance structures and their legal systems in the context of the features of the natural ecosystem that surrounds them. The location of the study is in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The detailed study describes the existing systems of participatory community based management and concludes that over time, the systems have come under increasing stress with the emergence of new, primarily, state driven systems. New capital intensive technologies were also introduced which also changed the traditional systems within and without the communities. Links with the external world, influx of new players into fish trade, increasing population and industrialization of coastal areas have also had a role to play in undermining the traditional systems which were best suited to work in a close-knot environment with smaller groups of people. Together these changes transformed the subsistence economy of fishing into a market based one of international stature and significance with the traditional systems becoming a casualty in the process.
Asia
Traditional Management,India,Governance,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Andhra Pradesh
5
Detailed description
No
66
Koshy, Neena Elizabeth.2001. Community based fishery management in Kasaragod and Kozhikode Districts of Kerala. M. Phil thesis submitted to Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, India. 2--2
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
Fish resource is under threat of getting depleted if its management is not taken care of. The indication towards the same is apparent through the decline in productivity seen throughout the world fishery sector. Modern management undertaken by the government has not yielded the desired results. Therefore, community based management receives more attention and focus. There are many instances where the community who is the receiver of most of the benefits of the resource, manages it well in a sustainable way. Such management is found to be successful as the community knows the resource well and they understand the importance of continuance of the resource, because their livelihood depends on the same and adapts such laws, which suit them as well as the resource. Such management systems practiced under the control of community institutions named ‘Kadal kodathi’ or ‘Sea Court’ was identified in northern districts of Kerala, a small state in the Southwest part of India. For understanding the management practices in the study area, various ethnographic tools along with the PRA tools were employed to elicit information from the respondents, Mainly the ethnographic tools were used taking into consideration the literacy status of the respondents. The structure of the institution as well as its functions was studied in detail. The various management practices undertaken by the institution were looked into. It was observed that certain rules and regulations were carried out especially during the ‘mudbank’ season, which is a season of plenty.
Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Kerala,India,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
4
No
67
Antonyto, Paul. 2002. Rise, fall and persistence of Kadakkodi: An enquiry into the evolution of a community institution for fishery management in Kerala, India. EEE Working Paper series, October. N.5.
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
To understand the processes of institutional evolution, the author has examined a few notable changes that have occurred with regard to an important informal institution called Kadakkodi, that prevails among the coastal fishing community of Kerala, India. Though it literally means ‘Sea Court’, it functions as a legislative executive and judiciary body that enacts regulations for fishing operations, enforces the regulations and resolves conflicts. Within a short period between early nineteen seventies and mid eighties it was observed that in some villages this system disintegrated while in some other villages it got restructured and restrengthened and in a few villages, the system persited without any interruption, Also it was found in the south Kerala coast, such a system did not emerge at all. The analysis of these four institutional changes finds that among the factors that influence the evolutionary trajectory of kadakkodies, the most important are relative resource endowment, technology, cultural endowment and the already existing institutional structures in the concerned societies of resource users. Variations in the levels of heterogeneity of these factors do explain a major part of the variations in the evolutionary processes of kadakkodies.
Asia
Traditional based management system,Kerala,India,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
5
Useful of its evaluation of changes over time
No
68
Gonzalez, Miguel. Between Land, Water – and Poverty: Community Empowerment and Small-Scale Fishery in Marshall Point, Nicaragua. Draft Only. Presented at the Povfish Synthesis meeting, Tanzania October 14-18 2009.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Nicaragua
This study seeks to comprehend management from the perspective of a fishing community located in the Pearl Lagoon basin of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua. In order to undertake these questions, the study focused the research in Marshall Point – an indigenous and Afro-descendant fishing community – located on the west margins of the Pearl Lagoon basin. Faced with still undefined property rights, internal conflicts over resource use, the exhaustion of the fishing stocks, and the continuous marginalization from decision-making of relevant policies (i.e. design of management plans, land demarcation process), fishermen from Marshall Point have developed a variety of mechanisms with the purpose of coping with vulnerability and mounting poverty. These mechanisms include, though are not limited to: i) strategizing towards securing land and aquatic rights; ii) shifting labor from fishing to agricultural production with the aim of securing food supplies; iii) organizing a fishing cooperative aimed at accessing national funding for fisheries’ development; and finally, iv) implementing informal community-based actions to locally manage the resources of the Lagoon. However, as the paper would argue, these mechanisms to be effective in the long run require sound governance in the area – which includes (though is not limited to) a proactive central state as well as purposeful local and regional authorities. Internally, strategies to overcome poverty in which some families have embarked upon (e.g., overfishing, cattle rising) might run the risk of further marginalizing and impoverishing vulnerable groups (elders and women) within the community.
Africa
Vulnerability,Poverty,Community Based Management,Rights,Governance
4
No
69
Gapu, George. The Case for a Community Based Property Rights Regime in the Laws and Policies Governing Zimbabwe's Fishery Resources: The Case Study of Upper Ruti Dam. The Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, June 17-21, 2002. Centre for International Environmental Law (CIEL) and The Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association (ZELA). Zimbabwe.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malawi
The main purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which CBPR and CBNRM strategies can be utilised in the sustainable exploitation of natural resources by rural communities. In this research, the focus of study was the fishery resource in Zimbabwe and particularly the Ruti dam fishery. The report analyses the ways in which the local communities derive benefit from the Ruti dam within the framework of the existing laws. Further, it also analyses whether the national laws and policies adequately balance the needs of the communities against the ideal of sustainable exploitation, and further still, how these can be reformed to achieve the desired balance. It is recommended that Zimbabwe's laws and policies on fisheries should be altered to recognise and give legal effect to management strategies in which the local communities directly participate. During the field study on Ruti dam, the local communities suggested ways in which they can participate in the management of the fishery resources whilst providing a safety net for ensuring that their exploitation of the resource is sustainable. The experiences on Mwenje dam in the Mazowe district of Zimbabwe, and in countries like Malawi and Zambia, show that management strategies, where local people have an input, though not perfect, provide a better alternative to the current management regime on Ruti dam and on Zimbabwe's fishery reservoirs in general.
It is hoped that Zimbabwe will develop the desired legislation and policies on fisheries which recognise that local communities have a stake in natural resources occurring within their areas and that the management of such resources is more efficacious if it has got the communities being directly involved.
On Ruti dam itself, it is hoped that the current command style of management, in which the department of National Parks owns and manages the fishery resources without any involvement by the local communities, will be replaced by a regime in which the communities play a primary role.
Africa
Reservoir Fisheries,Community Based Management,Participatory Management
4
No
70
Parras, Diane Antoinette Toni. 2001. Coastal Resource Management in the Philippines: A Case Study in the Central Visayas Region. The Journal of Environment Development (10): 80-103
Community based management Philippines
The ongoing destruction of wild coastal resources in the Philippines is rendering vast tracts of coral reef and other marine habitats unable to support productive fisheries. Progressive approaches to coastal resource management integrate local resource users into management plans while seeking support and consistency of regulations from central government. This community-based or comanagement concept has spurred various interdisciplinary programs, including education in basic ecology, training in resource assessment and monitoring, creation of community-based marine sanctuaries, and research and development of alternate livelihoods. This article describes initiatives taking place in the Visayas region of the Philippines, including the roles of stakeholders, policymakers, educators, nongovernmental organizations, and central government.
Asia
Coral Reefs,Community Based Management,Co-management
4
No
71
Pooley, Sam. 1998. Community Ownership and Natural Resource Management: Fisheries. Paper prepared for the annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, British Columbia, June 10.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This paper has attempted to address three important reservations to the property-rights approach to fisheries management -- equity and monetization, politicization, and uncertainty – by developing a localized resource management structure which mimics a corporation but which does not rely on private capital. It extends some earlier work on distributed governance and it is probably amenable to the co-management perspective. Initial applicability would probably require a specific -- and perhaps isolated -- local governance setting, as has been the case for a number of producer cooperatives. But in many cases local residents, particularly in heterogeneous communities which include both resource users and conservationists, might find this approach preferable to the on-going political struggles under the current societal regulatory regime or to the distributional prospects promised by the efficiency regime.
N. America
ITQ,Property rights,Community Based Management,Co-management,Governance
4
No
72
Pomeroy, R.S. 1995. Community-based and co-management institutions for sustainable coastal fisheries management in Southeast Asia. Ocean and Coastal Management 27: 143-162
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
Fisheries experts now recognize that resource conflicts can be diminished and resources better managed when fishers and other resource stakeholders are more involved in management, and access rights are distributed more effectively and equitably. There is an increasing commitment by governments in Southeast Asia to policies and programs of decentralization and community-based management and comanagement. The planning and implementation of these management systems will require the development of new legal, administrative and institutional arrangements at both national and community levels to complement contemporary political, economic, social and cultural structures.
Asia
Conflicts,Fisheries Management,Traditional Management Systems,Co-management,Governance,NGO,Food Security,Philippines,Thailand,Malaysia,Vietnam
5
Good review of multiple countries in Southeast Asia
No
73
Isaacs, Moenieba and Najma Mohamed. 2000. Co-Managing the Commons in the ‘New’ South Africa: Room for Manoeuvre? Paper presented at the 8th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property entitled, Constituting the Common.
Documents and Reports
Community based management South Africa
Co-managing the commons within the new governance structures of South Africa has the potential to promote participatory democracy and improve natural resource management. Inequitable access to and use of natural resources characterised apartheid-era policies and practices. In line with post-1990 democratisation processes, public involvement, participation, community-based initiatives and co-management have been promoted as key aspects of natural resource management policies. Power sharing, empowerment, organisational capacity building and improved natural resource management are some of the key principles of co-management within the South African context. This paper will explore the applicability of the co-management concept to the enhancement of rural livelihoods in South Africa with specific reference to the conservation sector, and coastal and marine resources policy and implementation processes. Comanagement initiatives in the fisheries and conservation sectors in South Africa have failed to incorporate many co-management principles, such as joint decision-making and benefit distribution. Instead, co-management has been transformed from a community-based management approach to a more top-down, corporatist approach. The visibility of market liberalisation and privatisation trends in South African natural resource policies reflects the dominance of such thinking in broader macro-economic policies. Thus, the embeddedness of local initiatives within the broader South African political economy explains why co-management, in its present form, provides little respite for the rural poor. In reality, the ‘action space’ created by natural resource management policies for community-based natural resource management, is not being claimed by rural communities. A re-definition of co-management, which addresses the realities of the fractured rural communities of South Africa within a liberalised political economy, is required to develop natural resource management systems that address the injustices of the past. Furthermore, co-management concepts should be re-worked to assist in the ‘demarginalisation’ of rural communities in South Africa.
Africa
Community Management,Co-management,Natural Resource Management
4
No
74
Pimoljinda, Jate and Veera Boonraksa. Community-Based Fisheries Co-Management Case Study: Phang-Nga Bay, Thailand. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Fisheries Co-management. Year not given
Documents and Reports
Community based management Thailand
Due to the degradation of fishery resources, the coastal ecosystem has deteriorated and conflict among fishermen in Phang-Nga Bay has intensified with the fish output becoming unsatisfactory. Various factors have aggravated this situation: inappropriate methods particularly the former management measures which had been established by the government sector, lack of participation and poor cooperation of the fisher community. To solve this problem, the Community-based Fisheries Management (CBFM) of which the essence is that the fishermen/fishermen’s organizations/communities and the government sector share their responsibilities in fishery management, has been initiated in two pilot coastal fishing villages of Phang-Nga Bay, namely Ban Bang Chan and Ban Haad Sai Pleug Hoy in 1995. The result of CBFM in the Bay has been successful in the short term. The fishery management through the CBFM approach has created better overall outcomes at present (1999) than those of the former system, and fishers are predominantly convinced that the present CBFM would produce good overall outcomes in the next five years than the present time. The key conditions for the success of CBFM are: socioeconomic status of the community such as community homogeneity and people’s dependence on fisheries; active participation, cooperation and coordination of various stakeholders; collaboration, support and advice from outside agencies; and the last condition is follow-up and evaluation to be carried out closely and continuously by responsible agencies. The process of CBFM in the Bay began with the organization of a workshop to get the acceptance, commitment and consensus of key stakeholders on the CBFM workplan components. This was done before selection of the appropriate target villages, organization of the meeting and selection of a village committee. The stakeholders were familiarized with the CBFM workplan objectives to be realized with a view to acceptance by the stakeholders in the villages. Later on, the problems faced and needs of the villages were discussed and taken into account in the workplan. The implementation of all activities has been conducted mainly by the fisherfolk themselves under the supervision and support of Andaman Fisheries Development Center (AFDEC) and other organizations such as the Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP), Phuket Fisheries Association, etc. Lastly, close and continuous follow-up and evaluation of the implementation have been performed during bimonthly meetings of the representatives from the target villages; the meetings rotate from one village to another to achieve the effective output and these give them the opportunity as well to exchange experiences both positive and negative in order to improve, to adjust and to develop the current activities for the success of CBFM approach.
Asia
Community Based Management,BOBP
4
No
75
Bulayi, Magese Emmanuel. 2001. Community Based Cooperative Fisheries Management For Lake Victoria Fisheries In Tanzania. Final Project, United Nations University
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Although fisheries management is a complex task, many countries in the world have managed to develop fisheries management regimes that can improve the economic efficiency of the fisheries. Property rights-based fisheries management regimes have shown promising results in the management of fisheries resources since they reduce or eliminate the incentives for over-capitalisation in harvesting of the fisheries resources and thus contribute to economic efficiency. Community-based cooperative fisheries management is one of the property rights based fisheries management systems, which has received attention in recent years particularly in the developing countries. In Tanzania, community-based cooperative fisheries management seems a feasible option because the current system is entirely based on common property and an open access approach. This approach has led to increased fishing effort, encouraged excessive fishing investment and thus, declining catch trends. A community-based cooperative fisheries management has proposed for Lake Victoria fisheries in Tanzania in order to improve fisheries management. This system recognises the sharing of management responsibilities between fishing communities through beach fisheries management units (BFMUs) and the Fisheries Division in the Ministry of Natural resources and Tourism. The community-based cooperative fisheries management is likely to reduce the problem of over-exploitation of fisheries resources in Lake Victoria by allocating exclusive fishing rights to the fishing communities through BFMUs in their respective villages. Legal mechanism should be developed as a basis of implementation of the community-based cooperative fisheries management in Lake Victoria.
Africa
Fisheries Management,Rights,Property rights,Cooperative
4
No
76
Heylings, Pippa. Common Property, Conflict and Participatory Management in the Galapagos Islands.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This paper aims to analyse the methodology for conflict analysis and facilitation being used in the Galapagos Islands which draws on the principles of a combination of approaches including third party consultation, interactive problem-solving, common property management, community-based conservation, environmental education, participatory management in protected areas and fisheries co-management. It emphasises the highly contextualised nature of the intervention and raises several key questions including the importance of a) an appropriate legal framework, b) the process and joint problem-solving nature of the intervention, c) how to develop effective representation of members of a multi-sectoral team in order to maximise the possibility of community-level commitment to solutions, d) the appropriate institutional model for participatory management.
Latin America
Conflict Resolution,Community Based Management,Ecuador
4
No
77
Tyler, Stephen R. 2006. Communities, Livelihoods And Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Practical Action Publishing/IDRC.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Bhutan
This book synthesizes results from a 7-year program of applied research on community-based approaches to natural resource management in Asia. The 11 case studies featured illustrate how local innovations in participatory natural resource management can strengthen livelihoods, build capacity for local governance, and spark policy change. The lessons are derived from the application of a participatory action research framework that engaged resource users, local governments, and researchers in collaborative learning. They illustrate practical innovations to strengthen livelihoods through improved collective resource management practices and broader technology choices.
The book provides practitioners with models of “good practice” in participatory, community-based resource management and demonstrates how site-based research contributes to broader learning in the field of natural resource management and policy. In addition to its uses for practitioners, this book will also be a valuable resource for graduate students in development studies and for applied researchers in government or private research organizations interested in development programs and policy analysis.
Asia
Lao PDR,Natural Resource Management,Community Based Management,Poverty,Governance,Traditional Knowledge,Gender,Property rights,Philippines,Vietnam
5
No
78
Davis, Carla. 2003. Com-management in Malawi: Comparison of Lake Malombe and Lake Chiuta. Master of Marine Studies – Fisheries Resource Management - report submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Fisheries and Marine Institute of Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malawi
Malawi is a small developing country that is dependent on fisheries as a source of employment and protein. The country supports an artisanal fishery for both commercial and subsistence use. Centralised management has failed to reduce effort and protect juvenile fish, resulting in declining fish stocks. In an effort to correct problems with these fisheries, co-management has been suggested starting with the test sites, Lake Malombe and Lake Chiuta. This study will look at improvements needed to increase the potential for sustainability by allowing co-management to be integrated into the societal context, focusing on the position of the village headmen and Beach Village Committees. Co-management is the evolving institutional process of sharing the management of the fishery among various stakeholders. The capacity and interests of local fishers are complemented by the state's ability to legislate regulations. Co-management can lead to better more informed decision-making and improved resource outcome as measured by efficiency, equity and sustainability. Co-management so far in Malawi involves the creation of Beach Village Committees in communities to aid the Department of Fisheries in managing fisheries at the test sites - Lake Malombe and Lake Chiuta. Beach Village Committees in Lake Malombe include the village headmen, and has resulted in fishers being underrepresented in management. After the implementation of co-management there has been an increase in compliance and increased catches. The main benefit is improved communication between the Department of Fisheries and communities. In Lake Chiuta, co-management was implemented through a community led initiative in response to the harmful effects of nkacha fishers. Village headmen have not served a major role in the process of co-management. As a result the Beach Village Committees are more often viewed as being representative of the fishers and they are able to present views of those fishers. The main advantage of co-management has been to legitimise de facto regulations. To become a part of the society in which these fishers live, co-management needs to have certain qualities. Village headmen need to be removed from Beach Village Committees, although they need to be given other positions of authority within the fishery that their position dictates. As members of lake wide committees they can still gain benefits from the fishery and be involved in dispute resolution. Beach Village Committees need to build on pre-existing social structures. This may mean the inclusion of sadakas and chairmen in Beach Village Committees.
Africa
Co-management,Community Based Management,Lake Fisheries
4
No
79
Brown, David. Creating Social Institutions for Fisheries Co-Management in the Caricom Region. No citiation available
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/116/brown.pdf.txt;jsessionid=8E6736B1969A19AF498441BF2B626BCD?sequence=2
Community based management N/a
In this paper, social institutions created for the sustainable management of the fisheries resources of the region, are depicted as containing elements which are necessary for the development of co-management systems. They are also portrayed as undergoing processes of social change. Hence institutions being built in the region for the sustainable management of the fisheries resources are conceptualized as Ideal Types, to which the past and current operations of these institutions are compared, in order to arrive at an understanding of the present situation and to allow for the prediction of future trends.
N. America
Community Based Management,Co-management,Sustainable Development,Fisheries Management,Institutions
4
No
80
Cuskelly, Katrina. 2010. Customs and Constitutions: State recognition of customary law around the world IUCN.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This study aims to survey the current level and form of State recognition of customary laws and institutions. The main focus of this paper is an analysis of the recognition of customary law in national constitutions. See Annex A for a bibliography of constitutional provisions. Constitutionally enshrined recognition of customary laws and rights is particularly important because, in many States, statutory law prevails over conflicting customary law, unless there is constitutional protection
World
Customary Rights,Institutions
5
Draft for comments; global scenario
No
81
Isaac, Victoria J., Mauro L. Ruffino, David McGrath. The Experience of Community-Based Management of Middle Amazonian Fisheries.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
In response to this competition for local resources, floodplain communities of the Middle Amazon are developing and implementing new forms of management of fish resources, based on traditional knowledge and collective agreements, with the aim of preserving the productivity of their fisheries. Local people claim the ownership of lakes near their communities based on the same notions of territoriality employed by other traditional populations for hunting and extractive activities. However, Brazilian legislation determines that all water resources and their fauna are public domain and does not guarantee regulation of access to these 'common goods'. In this context, in the early nineties various initiatives for resolving the problem have been proposed for the region. The basic idea of the necessity to construct a locally negotiated and locally based consensus on access to natural, mainly aquatic resources, has been developed by the different projects according to specific local conditions. As part of this effort, the fishery department of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources-IBAMA implemented Project IARA. One major objective of this project was to create a data base to give scientific support to the adoption of efficient management measures. After collecting landing data for the Santarém market and length-frequency data for the most important fish species it was possible to apply some single-species stock assessment methods to assess the status and main features of the fisheries. These approaches permit us to conclude that large species with a high market value are being exploited intensively, and in some cases are already overexploited. On the other hand, smaller, opportunistic species seem to be more affected by environmental factors than by fishing effort. Simultaneously, research has been conducted by social scientists to investigate traditional management measures, aiming to understand the holistic approach taken by fishers. With regards to the community-based management one relevant question is how to evaluate the success of the measures. A comparison of fishing productivity in two lakes near the city of Santarém, one with a community-based management regime and the other without, demonstrated that the managed lake was approximately twice as productive as the unmanaged lake. Nevertheless, community based management also has problems, and frequently causes new conflicts both between community members and between the community and outsiders
Latin America
Amazon,Fish Stock,Fisheries Management,Conflicts,Community Based Management,participatory approach
4
No
82
Costa, Thomas, Anwara Begum and S. M. Nazmul Alam. From exclusion to collective ownership: A case study of user-group representatives in fisheries management in Bangladesh. No citation available
Community based management Bangladesh
Rajdhala beel is a semi-closed fishery located in Purbadhala thana in Netrakona district of Bangladesh. There are 4 villages around the beel with 640 households of which 93 households are traditional fishers. Before the liberation war in 1971, fisheries (jalmahals) were managed by landlords ‘zamindars’ and later by the Department of Fisheries during the Pakistan Period. There was less fishing pressure in the waterbody then, and fishers sometimes gave big carp and other wild fish to the zamindar living around the waterbody. It reported that in some years in the 1960s the Department of Fisheries released carp in the beel. Fisher leaders were responsible for guarding and all other fishing activities. They did not catch small sized stocked fish and they would only get 25% of income from catching good size of carp and gave 75% of income to DoF. After the independence of Bangladesh a Fisher Cooperative Society took the lease to this beel for three years. The cooperative society members, totaling 72 fishers, introduced fishing by five teams following a rotational system. In 1990 the beel was transferred under the New Fisheries Management Policy (NFMP). A major effort to promote more sustainable management in the beel was taken in 1996 through the CBFM project. Caritas, a national Non Government Organization working for the betterment of poor people, has worked on a process of empowering fishers to carry out their own development and to manage their renewable resources. This study looks at the community based management of Rajadhala beel which shows that given tactical and government support favourable, the poor fishers can bring about tangible improvements both in their own lives and in the management of the common property resources. With NGO support backed by government, fisheries rights can be established resulting in more sustainable and productive fishery management.
Asia
Community Based Management,Inland Fisheries,Empowerment
4
No
83
Levine, Arielle. 2002. Global Partnerships in Tanzania’s Marine Resource Management: NGOs, The Private Sector, And Local Communities. http://hdl.handle.net/1834/732
Documents and Reports
http://www.oceandocs.net/handle/1834/732
Community based management Tanzania
While Tanzania’s system of designating terrestrial parks and protected areas has been historically exclusionary, recent conservation initiatives are acknowledging the need to involve local people in these programs and to provide benefits to resource-dependent communities. New policies for protecting marine resources are also following this approach. Government agencies, in collaboration with external institutions, are now experimenting with systems of community-based marine resource management through the establishment of non-exclusionary Marine Protected Areas, involving local user groups in both management and benefit regimes. The fugitive nature of marine resources, together with diffuse user groups that cannot be defined as traditional “communities,” provide tremendous challenges to marine resource management in East Africa. Additionally, pressures of globalization are resulting in increased use of and impact on marine resources in coastal regions. However, these same pressures have also brought about new opportunities for collaborative resource management through the involvement of international non-governmental organizations and private sector operators. Still, with these opportunities come further complications as rights of access to resource use and control are continually debated and reconfigured with new sets of actors. In the current context of globalization, the state, local communities, international development agencies, transnational and local NGOs, private sector operations, and a variety of other global and local user groups all have a stake in protected area management programs. In coastal Tanzania, a number of new models of collaborative marine resource management have been established within the last decade, and international actors are playing an influential role their creation and implementation. Central to these programs have been the efforts of international conservation NGOs and private sector tourist operations. Both of these types of institutions are interested in the conservation of marine resources, and each is trying to involve local user-groups in community benefit programs to obtain local support and ensure long-term program sustainability. Still, there is much variation in the design of these programs and in the relationships with local community groups in programs from these different sectors. This study looks comparatively at community-based marine conservation initiatives designed and implemented by both international NGOs and private-sector tourist operators to better understand their relationships with local user communities, how these programs are changing community behavior, attitudes, and access to natural resources, the challenges faced by each type of program, and what the implications of these programs are for marine resource protection and long-term sustainability.
Africa
Community Based Management,MPA,NGO
4
No
84
Njaya, Friday. 2006. Governance challenges on the implementation of fisheries co-management arrangements in Malawi. IASCP
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malawi
This paper reviews some major challenges experienced following a shift in the management of fisheries resources in Malawi from centralised system to co-management in early 1990s. While the policy and legal frameworks governing management of the fisheries resources were established between 1997 and 2000, several key governance processes remain uncompleted. The decentralisation process has been slow while expectations among the user communities remain high. This is especially the case where the government made promises to the user community to establish a revenue sharing mechanism and gear compensation scheme and yet till now that has not yet been fulfilled. With adoption of the decentralisation policy, the institutional support from the local governments devolved functions like licensing, enforcement and extension is far from being secured. In some areas there is power struggle between the traditional institutions that form informal structures and the local level representative Beach |Village Committees. The principles of good governance that include participation and accountability of the representative committees are lacking in some areas, mainly due to how members are elected. The initiation process is another area of concern especially in cases like Lake Malombe where the government took a leading role to introduce the co-management arrangement and made several promises as incentives for participation of the user groups. However, ongoing activities like identifying other relevant stakeholders and their specific roles in a broad-based participatory process, developing constitutions, by-laws and management plans is a positive step towards signing of management agreements.
Africa
Co-management,Stakeholders,participatory approach,IASCP
4
No
85
Basurto, Xavier. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in a Mexican Small-Scale Fishing Community. Society and Natural Resources, 18:643–659
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
The Seri people, a self-governed community of small-scale fishermen in the Gulf of California, Mexico, have ownership rights to fishing grounds where they harvest highly valuable commercial species of bivalves. Outsiders are eager to gain access, and the community has devised a set of rules to allow them in. Because Seri government officials keep all the economic benefits generated from granting this access for themselves, community members create alternative entry mechanisms to divert those benefits to themselves. Under Hardin’s model of the tragedy of the commons, this situation would eventually lead to the overexploitation of the fishery. The Seri people, however, are able to simultaneously maintain access and use controls for the continuing sustainability of their fishing grounds. Using insights from common-pool resources theory, the author discusses how Seri community characteristics help mediate the conflict between collective action dilemmas and access and use controls.
Latin America
Community Based Management,Common Property Resources
4
No
86
Doloutskaia, Sofia. The impact of international tourism on community-based development in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Paper submitted for the 9th Biennial Conference of the IASCP: “The Commons in the Age of Globalization”
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
Although their capacity for resistance and independent decision making have been quite limited, the coastal communities of Baja California have not passively accepted the marginal role in natural resource management, given to them by the federal government. During 1990s several fishing towns in the southern state of the peninsula, Baja California Sur (BCS), have attempted to increase their decision making power by launching community-based conservation initiatives. In August 2000 representatives of nine fishing cooperatives of Puerto San Carlos (PSC) established the Committee for Sea Turtle Protection – the first of its kind in Baja California and in Mexico. While the name of the Committee emphasized protection of an endangered animal, the Committee has also listed sustainable natural resource use, promotion of ecotourism and scientific research, and environmental education as its main goals. This paper evaluates the potential of this new community-based organization (CBO) to mobilize the residents of the community and to increase their decision making power. Since it is currently unclear, what development option the residents of PSC would prefer, this paper does not attempt to make the choice for them, but rather lays out and evaluates several options that became available since the initiation of Escalera Nautica in February 2001.
Latin America
Community Based Management,Sea Turtle,Natural Resource Management,Ecotourism
4
No
87
Vera, Cesar Allan. The Struggle of the Small-Scale Fisherfolk of Masinloc and Oyon Bay for Good Governance in a Protected Seascape. IASCP 2004.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
A sanctuary was set up in San Salvador Island through the help of a Peace Corp Volunteer. However, the success of the sanctuary can be credited to the determination of the residents of the island to protect and preserve their natural resources. Through a community-based coastal resource management program of the non-government organization (NGO) Haribon Foundation, the local fisherfolk organization called Samahang Pangkaunlaran ng San Salvador (SPSS), took it upon themselves to manage the marine sanctuary and reserve. Their effort was legitimized by Municipal Ordinance no. 30, series of 1988. Local government officials capitalized on the enthusiastic dive of the President by lobbying Congress to declare the Masinloc and Oyon Bay as a Protected Seascape under Republic Act 7586, the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act. Several consultations and public hearings were then conducted. Eventually, Masinloc and Oyon Bay was declared as a protected seascape through Proclamation No. 231 on August 18, 1993. Thus, the successful marine sanctuary and reserve of San Salvador Island were expanded to cover 7,568 hectares. This case study looks at the issues and problems in this marine sanctuary and the challenges faced by fisherfolk of Masinloc and Oyon Bay who have remained vigilant in their effort to protect and manage their coastal resources
Asia
Community Based Management,Protected Areas,DFT,Pollution,Coastal Management,marine sanctuary
4
No
88
Govan, H. et al. 2009. Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the South Pacific: meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs. SPREP/WWF/WorldFish-Reefbase/CRISP. 95pp + 5 annexes
Community based management N/a
The South Pacific has experienced a remarkable proliferation of Marine Managed Areas (MMAs) in the last decade. These protected areas, implemented by over 500 communities spanning 15 independent countries and territories represent a unique global achievement. The approaches being developed at national levels are built on a unique feature of the region, customary tenure and resource access, and make use of, in most cases, existing community strengths in traditional knowledge and governance, combined with a local awareness of the need for action, resulting in what have been most aptly termed Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs). The main driver in most cases is a community desire to maintain or improve livelihoods, often related to perceived threats to food security or local economic revenue. In the South Pacific, conservation and sustainable use are often seen as inseparable as part of the surviving concepts of traditional environmental stewardship. The extent of this shift towards Community Based Resource Management in Melanesia and Polynesia is unprecedented on a global scale and is the subject of this report.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Traditional Knowledge,Governance,LMMPA,Polynesia,Melanesia,Customary Tenure,Traditional Management
5
No
89
Andrade Perez, A., Herrera Fernandez, B. and Cazzolla Gatti, R. (eds.) 2010. Building Resilience to Climate Change: Ecosystem-based adaptation and lessons from the field. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 164pp.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Colombia
This book is one of the main contributions of the Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM) of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to the international discussions on how we should address climate change impacts on natural and human systems, including ecosystems and the services they provide to society and communities. This book intends to contribute to gaps, specifically by compiling a set of current operational case studies from around the globe and by highlighting some practical adaptation planning processes that may advance the development of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA), and conservation adaptation strategies. Here, eleven case studies from different parts of the world covering a variety of ecosystems are presented and discussed. Between them, the case studies cover a range of adaptation interventions, some focused on adaptation for conservation purposes, and some focused on supporting people to adapt to climate change, through Ecosystem-based Adaptation. Many of the case studies have both elements, in recognition of the fact that in order to continue to provide services to enable people to adapt to climate change, ecosystems themselves also will need to adapt. This publication intends to summarize some current applications of the EbA concept and its tools used around the world, and also draw lessons from experiences in conservation adaptation. It is expected that the experiences presented in this book will help address the current challenges in climate change adaptation and stimulate future research to advance adaptation for both people and ecosystems globally.
World
Climate Change,Community Based Management,Adaptation,Ecosystem Based Management,MPA,SIDS
4
More focus on Climate Change, one case study from SIDS and one from Colombia may be especially relevant to fisheries
No
90
Mowa, June Marie, Elizabeth Taylor, Marion Howard, Mark Baine, Ernesto Connolly and Maio Chiquillo. 2007. Collaborative planning and management of the San Andres Archipelago’s coastal and marine resources: A short communication on the evolution of the Seaflower marine protected area. Ocean & Coastal Management 50: 209–222
Documents and Reports
Community based management Colombia
The Archipelago of San Andres, Old Providence, and Santa Catalina, Colombia, in the Western Caribbean—a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve since November 2000—relies heavily on its coastal and marine resources, which are important for fisheries, tourism, as habitats, and for their traditional cultural value. However, as economic and subsistence importance has increased so have incidences of conflict over resource use and threats to ecosystem health. One of the main conflicts relates to traditional resource use as practiced by native islanders alongside new types of uses, methods, and exploitation, particularly with regards to industrial fishing. This conflict is exacerbated by historically centralized marine management processes linked primarily to economic development, which have excluded native islanders from planning and decision-making, failed to recognize their fishing rights, and lacked respect for the inherent sociocultural importance of traditional knowledge. In acknowledgment of the need to involve stakeholders in resource management planning, the local representative of Colombia’s National Environment System (SINA), CORALINA, has embraced an alternative approach to historical top-down schemes. The approach is characterized by: (1) recovering traditional best management practices in coastal and marine management and integrating them with appropriate new methods; (2) involving stakeholders, especially native islanders, as equal partners in planning and implementation processes; (3) building local, national, and international coalitions and partnerships; (4) strengthening the capacity of local institutions; and (5) creating new capacity through formal and informal educational initiatives. At the heart of this approach is participation and equity for all, as exemplified in the planning process for the archipelago’s Seaflower Marine Protected Area (MPA).
Latin America
Caribbean,Conflicts,Traditional Practice,MPA,Traditional Management Systems,Fishing Rights
4
No
91
Henriques, Augusta and Pierre Campredon. From sacred areas to the creation of marine protected areas in the Bijagos archipelago (Guinea Bissau, West Africa). No citation given
Documents and Reports
Community based management Papua New Guinea
The Bijagos islands, the only deltaic archipelago on the Atlantic coast of Africa, comprises 80 islands and covers an area of nearly 10,000 km2 off the coast of Guinea Bissau. It is a patchwork of mudflats, mangroves, palm groves and savanna grasslands which produce a wide diversity and abundance of natural resources. The archipelago currently has a population of some 25,000 inhabitants, the vast majority of whom belong to the Bijago ethnic group Although only about 20 of the islands are permanently inhabited, the entire archipelago is used according to age-old management traditions. Recent times have seen a number of pressures from as industrial fishing to tourism. In order to ensure that these new developments do not destroy the social, cultural and environmental stability underpinning the archipelago, partnerships have been set up under the banner of the Biosphere Reserve. A zoning process defining the types of use allowed in different areas was put in place with the islanders' participating in all stages. A short note about the Urok community MPA is given here.
Africa
Traditional Management Systems,MPA,Community Based Management
4
No
92
Brenier, Ambroise, Emanuel Ramos and Augusta Henriques. 2005. Live from Urok! Urok Islands Community Marine Protected Area: lessons learned and impacts. FIBA.
Documents and Reports
http://www.lafiba.org/index.php/fr/content/download/2698/17889/version/1/file/099ParolesUROKGB.pdf
Community based management Papua New Guinea
The Urok Islands Community MPA is part of a network of national protected areas that comprise the Bolama and Bijagós Archipelago Biosphere Reserve. Recognised by Unesco since 1996, the reserve comprises the marine national park of João Vieira/Poilão, the Orango Isles national park and the Urok Community Marine Protected Area. The creation and effective management of the Urok Islands Community MPA is thefruit of fifteen years of work by Tiniguena in collaboration with local and national communities and institutions, the International Foundation for the Banc d’Arguin (FIBA) and other national and international partners. An independent evaluation was conducted in March 2008 following completion of this second phase of the collaboration between FIBA and Tiniguena. The report concluded that the work undertaken is of good quality, combining passion with rigour, using appropriate methods and tools whilst leaving space for innovation and improvisation. The approach is able to combine traditional conservation actions – such as fisheries patrols – with a pioneering cultural element. According to the report, this work, founded on mutual trust between the partners, and seeking to renew hope against a difficult background, is a genuine success. This booklet uses extracts from the main conclusions of the evaluation report, which are presented thematically. For each theme, this document provides comments, illustrations, and examples. Some of the impacts of the Urok Islands Community MPA are therefore portrayed through anecdotes and short stories about changes that the inhabitants of the isles may have observed or experienced. The lessons learned from this unique experience have been documented through interviews with people who are or who were present at the heart of the Community MPA creation process. Finally, perceptions surrounding the impacts of the Community MPA have also been gathered via questionnaires completed by representative samples of Urok fishermen and female shellfish gatherers.
Africa
Traditional Practice,Traditional based management system,Natural Resource Management,MPA,Community Based Management
5
No
93
McLeod, Elizabeth, Brian Szuster, and Rodney Salm. Sasi and Marine Conservation in Raja Ampat, Indonesia. 37(2009): 6, 656 — 676, First published on: 01 November 2009 (iFirst). DOI: 10.1080/08920750903244143
Documents and Reports
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920750903244143
Community based management Indonesia
Raja Ampat, Indonesia, possesses the greatest diversity of corals and reef fishes on the planet. The area is a priority for marine conservation for the provincial government, local communities, and major international nongovernmental organizations such as The Nature Conservancy and Conservation International. Traditional marine resource management practices in the region, referred to as sasi, have the potential to support conservation objectives. This article contends that while traditional marine resource management systems may support conservation, they must be reinforced by a supportive social structure and governance system to remain relevant in a rapidly changing world. Two villages in Raja Ampat were studied to gain a better understanding of sasi and how this practice has been affected by cultural, political, and economic change. These villages illustrate how the role of religious authorities, access to alternative livelihoods, proximity to urban centers, and capacity for monitoring and enforcement may influence the effectiveness of marine resource management systems. Our research suggests that the continued relevance of sasi in marine resource management relies on the support of influential local leaders and businesses and government regulations that reinforce traditional resource use practices.
Asia
Community Based Management,Sasi,Marine resource Management,Traditional Management Systems
4
No
94
Granek, Elise F. and Mark A. Brown, Co-Management Approach to Marine Conservation in Moheli, Comoros Islands. Conservation Biology 2005 (19): 1724–1732 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00301.x
Documents and Reports
Community based management Comoros
Many developing countries experience habitat degradation and unsustainable natural resource exploitation, with biodiversity and habitat conservation efforts often impeded by political instability and limited funding. Challenges in previous conservation efforts coupled with the current rate of marine habitat degradation and species declines warrant consideration of an innovative conservation approach. Co-management of protected areas addresses biological, cultural, economic, and political concerns and empowers communities through collaboration and integration in conservation efforts. It provides flexibility for adaptive practices to address underlying socioeconomic factors affecting conservation efforts and may compensate for limited or missing scientific data. The ecosystems of the Comoros Islands in the West Indian Ocean, a biodiversity hotspot with high endemism and diverse tropical marine habitats, are adversely affected by existing ecological, socioeconomic, and political conditions. Moh´eli Marine Park was designed to address threats to the marine environment and is a model for co-management practices. We conducted a year-long evaluation of the park implementation process, including community and fisher participation. After 3 years of operation with 80% local community control, the park maintains a small staff to monitor sea turtle nesting beaches, reef health, fisheries, and uninhabited islets and to guide ecotourists and educate visitors. Our analysis revealed successes and shortcomings of the co-management approach. Successes included local communities empowered to participate in natural resource management, increased local involvement in conservation initiatives, and use of traditional knowledge when scientific information was unavailable. The Comoros example also illustrates that co-management is not immune to social issues, inadequate government law enforcement, or political instability and is an incomplete substitute for sound science. Lessons learned are applicable elsewhere and offer a template for effective scientific research and monitoring, policy making, and management of protected areas in developing nations.
Africa
Co-management,Ecotourism,Marine Parks
4
No
95
Voices from the village: A comparative study of coastal resources management in the Pacific Islands. Pacific Island Discussion Paper Series, No. 9. East Asia and Pacific Region, Papua New Guinea and Pacific Islands Country Management Unit. The World Bank, Washington DC, 2000.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
The lives of the people who live on the 2,700 islands of the Pacifica re closely intertwined with the ocean. In this vast ocean area of 30.6 million square kilometers, Pacific Islanders continue to depend heavily on the marine life in the coastal waters for food and income. Much of the culture of the islands - its way of life, traditional beliefs and recreation -is linked to the coastal areas. Coastal areas, however, are facing many challenges. Population growth and the need for cash income have led to overexploitation of fish and shellfish resources. The lagoons, coral reefs, and shores are being threatened by pollution, siltation, and the construction of coastal infrastructure facilities. Moreover, the government agencies of most of the islands are not structured in a way that would enable them to carry out the integrated efforts that may be needed to deal effectively with the threats to coastal resources. In 1998-99, the World Bank sponsored a survey of coastal communities in five Pacific Island countries- Fiji, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Tonga. The purpose of the study was to strengthen the understanding, among the region's coastal managers of the factors that contribute to the successful management of coastal resources. The study was based on a six- months survey of 31 coastal communities. The study sought to address the following questions: What are the factors external to the communities that are most likely to affect coastal resource management? What are the site-specific characteristics that influence management success? Which management processes are most conducive to successful coastal resources management? Also surveyed were the perceptions of community groups regarding coastal resource trends, the need for external assistance, the relevance of national legislation to the communities, the effectiveness of partnerships between communities and external organizations, and lessons learned from marine sanctuaries and income substitution policies. Given the uncertainties that still surround these complex issues, the study’s conclusions are presented as key lessons learned and the recommendations are kept as specific as possible.
Oceania
Palau,Fiji,Tonga,Coastal resource management,Community Based Management
5
No
96
Fernandez, P.R. Understanding Relational Politics in MPA Governance in Northeastern Iloilo, Philippines. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium) 38 – 42. Gold Coast, Australia, ISSN 0749.0208
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
The Philippines archipelago is an important centre of tropical coastal marine biodiversity. Since the 1970s, various national and international actors have popularised marine protected areas (MPAs) as an effective tool for coastal conservation, tourism and even social empowerment. Scholars and practitioners however, overlook the different actors and complex institutions that frame and contest MPA design, implementation and outcomes. Pursuing apolitical perspectives and strategies in MPA governance and management, in turn, lead to continued environmental destruction and impoverished small-scale fishers. This paper describes the resources, power and relationship of key actors in MPA decision-making in four sites in northeastern Iloilo Province, Philippines. The paper explains that state-led, community-based and co-managed MPAs in the case study sites are socially constructed and contested. In such MPA spaces, actors have complex negotiations that have diverse and uncertain socio-political and ecological results. It is argued, however, that unless state and non-state actors link improved coastal ecosystem management, effective MPA governance and opportunities to enhance local livelihoods, then existing institutional arrangements will unlikely promote social justice and equity. In addition the major ecological effects of the Solar 1-Petron oil spill of August, 2006 are described and the potential implications of the disaster to the institutional resilience of MPA management systems are evaluated.
Asia
MPA,Community Based Management,Co-management,Governance
4
No
97
Aswani, Shankar and Pam Weiant. Scientific Evaluation in Women's Participatory Management: Monitoring Marine Marine Invertebrate Refugia in the Solomon Islands.
Documents and Reports
Women and Resources Management Solomon Islands
This paper summarizes the results of a women's community-based marine protected area that has been successful in sustaining invertebrate biological resources and in promoting strong community support. We outline the project and the associated biological results, describe the processes involved in attaining a committed level of community participation, and review the lessons learned during the project's implementation. We attribute the project's preliminary success-improved shellfish biomass, enhanced local environmental awareness, and the reinvigoration of cultural management practices-to the following factors: I) the high level of participatory involvement and community leadership; 2) the local perception that shell beds have recovered rapidly and the role that scientific evaluation has played in reinforcing this notion; 3) a research program that is cross-fertilizing indigenous and scientific ecological knowledge; 4) the unique marine tenure system that allows for the project's development and the area's policing; and 5) the tangible economic incentives created by the development project, which ultimately empowers local women. We hope that the project's findings can be generalized to other regions of the world with operational sea-tenure regimes and that it can help to make the establishing of community-based marine protected areas (CBMPAs) across the Pacific region more effective.
Oceania
Women,Tenure and Use,Shellfish,MPA,LMMPA,Indigenous Knowledge
4
Focus on women
No
98
Bjorkan, Maiken. Putting MPAs to work: A Mexican Case Study on Community Empowerment. MAST, 8 2009: Vol 1.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
There are increasing pressures on the coastal zone on a global basis. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are employed in order to soften pressures on coastal environmental integrity. As a result, the establishment of MPAs usually encounters opposition locally. This is so since softening the pressure typically means reduced access and use of the given area, which can have great impact on local communities. The case study presented here is an exception to this general rule. Drawing on empirical data from Yucatan, Mexico, the author shows how a small fishing community managed to create an MPA for local purposes. Like most coastal communities in the region, the village depends on fisheries for both subsistence and commerce. In order to protect their interests, increasingly under pressure from overexploitation, immigration and hurricanes, the villagers turned to the global environmental discourse and to the MPA. Here, the author demonstrates how the MPA in the village in my case study was used to empower fishers and their communities, and how the global discourse on environmental protection and biodiversity was made to work for local interests.
Latin America
MPA,Fisheries Management,Empowerment,Coastal Communities,Subsistence Fisheries
4
No
99
Koziell, Izabella and Cristina Y.A.Inoue. 2006. Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve,Brazil. Lessons Learnt in Integrating Conservation with Poverty Reduction. Biodiversity and Livelihoods Issues No.7. International Institute for Environment and Development.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve is situated in North Western Brazil, in the upper reaches of the Amazon, at the confluence of the Solimões and Japurá Rivers. It is located within an area of flooded forest, or várzea, and is of exceptionally high global and local biodiversity value. There are many endemics, and plant diversity is high. The fishery with around 400 recorded species makes it one of the most diverse in the world. About 1800 local people live within and around the reserve depending on fish, some agriculture and timber extraction. In the 1980s, a team of Brazilian scientists started some innovative biological and anthropological research in Mamirauá. The area at the time was classed as an Ecological Station – one of the strictest protected area categories in Brazil, which allowed no human habitation and no harvesting. Out of the scientists research grew recognition that without involving local people in the management of the area, its long-term viability would be threatened. The intense pressure on the area from external commercial interests, coupled with the lack of state government resources for surveillance meant that effective enforcement by state authorities was near impossible. A new concept was developed – a protected area that would allow for human habitation and sustainable use of the local resources. Returns from harvesting would then provide local people with the incentive to engage in surveillance and conservation activities. The scientists lobbied the Brazilian Government hard, and eventually a new category – a Sustainable Development Reserve – was created with Mamirauá designated as such in 1996. The scientists formed an NGO through which they carried out further work in the area – for which they received substantial grants from a number of donors. Subsequent work in the MSDR focused on developing suitable approaches for carrying out effective conservation in an area of high global and local biodiversity value, whilst at the same time improving the livelihoods of the residents and legitimate users of the area. The SCM’s core aim was to establish a working model, which could then be used to demonstrate ‘people in protected areas’ approaches so that these could be replicated on a much wider basis in similar Amazonian ecosystems. It is for this reason that after ten years of its support, DFID commissioned this study, with a view to ensuring the key lessons of the Mamirauá project gain wide readership and understanding, not only in Brazil but also elsewhere. There were also several lessons learnt from how to manage projects and donor interactions. These have also been captured.
Latin America
Amazon,Protected Areas,Community Based Management
4
No
100
Madagascar’s first community-run, experimental Marine Protected Area. No citation available
Documents and Reports
Community based management Madagascar
A unique partnership between the local community, local and international NGOs and institutions aiming to show the economic, conservation and fisheries benefits of Madagascar’s first community-run experimental Marine Protected Area (MPA). The partnership aims to address the issues of increasing poverty and unsustainable resource
use in Andavadoaka and to identify strategies and targets that the local community can work towards to develop sustainable local environmental management plans for Andavadoaka’s unique marine and coastal environment. The focus is on improving the quality of life of the Andavadoakan community who depend on the area’s marine resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of the reefs. The partnership has enabled the pooling of resources, talents and experiences from a range of national and international organisations, providing a wealth of technical expertise to assist in the successful development of this initiative. A multi-disciplinary approach is taken, involving broad-scale fisheries monitoring research, coral reef monitoring and socioeconomic monitoring, alongside capacity building for community conservation initiatives aiming to promote sustainable fisheries management plans.
Africa
MPA,Community Based Management,LMMPA
4
No
101
Pollnac, Richard B, Brian R. Crawford and Maharlina L.G. Gorospe. 2001. Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management 44 683–710
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
Community-based marine protected areas have become a popular coastal resources management method advocated in many projects and programs. While many case studies have
been written about factors contributing to project success, few empirical studies using quantitative methods have been employed. A study was conducted of 45 community-based marine protected areas in Philippines. Several success measures were developed and analyzed in relation to a number of independent variables categorized as contextual or project intervention factors. Correlations between individual factors and the dependent variables are discussed. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the most important predictors of success. These included: population size of the community, a perceived crisis in terms of reduced fish populations, successful alternative income projects, high levels of participation in community decision making, continuing advice from the implementing organization and inputs from local government. The implications of these results for policy makers and project managers are discussed.
Asia
LMMPA,Community Based Management
4
No
102
Cinner, J.E. Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management systems. Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-007-0213-2
Documents and Reports
Community based management Papua New Guinea
Coral reef conservation strategies such as marine protected areas have met limited success in many developing countries. Some researchers attribute part of these shortcomings to inadequate attention to the social context of conserving marine resources. To gain insights into applying Western conservation theory more successfully in the socioeconomic context of developing countries, this study examines how long-enduring, customary reef closures appear to reflect local socioeconomic conditions in two Papua New Guinean communities. Attributes of the customary management (including size, shape, permanence, and gear restrictions) are examined in relation to prevailing socioeconomic conditions (including resource users’ ability to switch gears, fishing grounds, and occupations). Customary closures in the two communities appear to reflect local socioeconomic circumstances in three ways. First, in situations where people can readily switch between occupations, full closures are acceptable with periodic harvests to benefit from the closure. In comparison, communities with high dependence on the marine resources are more conducive to employing strategies that restrict certain gear types while still allowing others. Second, where there is multiple clan and family spatial ownership of resources, the communities have one closure per clan/family; one large no-take area would have disproportionate affect on those compared to the rest of the community. In contrast, communities that have joint ownership can establish one large closure as long as there are other areas available to harvest. Third, historical and trade relationships with neighboring communities can influence regulations by creating the need for occasional harvests to provide fish for feasts. This study further demonstrates the importance of understanding the socioeconomic context of factors such as community governance and levels of dependence for the conservation of marine resources.
Oceania
Traditional based management system,MPA,Coral Reefs,Closed Area
4
No
103
Neuhaus, E. 2003. Community based tourism experiences in Ceara, Northeast of Brazil. Working Paper. Instituto Terramar, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, December
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
Tourism has long provided economic benefits – jobs and income – for national and local economies. Especially in developing countries, tourism has the potential to generate employment and income and to improve the quality of life of local people in the destination areas, but in reality just the opposite happens: social and spatial segregation, loss of land tenure, concentration of wealth and income and other undesirable social, cultural and environmental impacts. This is the case of some places on the coast of Ceara and many other places around the world. But, fortunately, there are exceptions, places with community based tourism projects. Community tourism seeks to ensure that impacts are positive ones and provide economic benefits to local communities, values local culture and diversity and protects the environment. Tourism can thus provide a lasting benefit to local communities. Ultimately, responsible tourism is about the mutual benefit for local people and visitors. Community based tourism contributes to conservation of biodiversity, sustains the well being of local people, provides a learning experience to the visitor and stresses local participation, empowerment, ownership and business opportunities for the population.
Latin America
Ecotourism,Community Based Management
4
More about ecotourism but potentially useful in alternate livelihoods
No
104
Agatti Conservation Reserve: Proposed Marine Protected Area. Management Plan 2008-2013. Discussion Document, April 2007
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
The management plan is prepared for the establishment and the first five year management of the proposed ‘Agatti Conservation Reserve’ in Agatti, Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India. The proposed new 10 km2 (1,000 ha) Marine Protected Area (MPA) – is expected to be the first community-based – comanaged - marine conservation reserve in India. The management plan is recommended as a short-medium term adaptation mechanism to climate change. The goal is to conserve a vulnerable and representative coral reef ecosystem – including two globally threatened and conservation dependent giant clam species (Tridacna maxima, T. squamosa) – while making sure the island’s community meets its needs by sustainable use of the conservation reserve’s ecosystem goods and services. The three most severe threats to the conservation and cultural values of the proposed ‘Agatti Conservation Reserve’ are climate change, over-fishing and pollution. Climate change is expected to have the most adverse impacts. In addition to climate change, local pressures, especially over-fishing of bait fish stocks for pole and line tuna fishing, and pollution represent the most immediate threats to the proposed reserve’s natural values and people’s livelihood. The ‘Agatti Conservation Reserve’ is recommended to adopt a co-management approach, encouraged and supported by the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (Amendment, 2002). According to co-management principles management plans, decisions and implementation measures are jointly made by government representatives – at island and state government level - and local community members. The current management plan is for a period of five years: 2008-2013. Annual reviews are recommended for effective management.
Asia
Lakshwadeep,Co-management,Climate Change
4
No
105
McConney, P. Grenada. 2003.Case Study: Legalisation of Beach Seine. Traditional Rules at Gouyave. Caribbean coastal co-management guidelines project,
Documents and Reports
Community based management Grenada
Traditional fishery rules are poorly documented in the eastern Caribbean. An outstanding exception is the work of James Finlay, the recently retired head of the fisheries authority in Grenada. His thoroughly documented research and industry consultations on the beach seine rules in Grenada have lead to them being recommended for legalisation. This case researched how fisheries stakeholders and the government may approach this in the case of Gouyave, a west coast town known as the fishing capital of Grenada, where beach seining for coastal pelagics and small-scale longlining for tunas are very interactive fisheries. A variety of conflicts have arisen out of these interactions. Although the recommendation to reduce conflict through legislation has been made, and seems
to be agreed with by the fishing industry based on previous consultations, it is not clear if or how the process will proceed. A critical factor is the extent to which legislation will allow local level interpretation and development of the rules to continue. Caribbean fisheries legislation is not known for its flexibility and scope for adaptation. This community-based control is likely to be feasible only if the fishery stakeholders in Gouyave desire this level of power and responsibility. The findings concerning the interaction between nets and boats in the bay, and the legalisation of the traditional rules, are consistent in showing that the fishers have no interest in, or capacity for, taking on the responsibility of managing the fishery without considerable support and direction from government. The fishers have concluded that there is no respect for rules formulated through community structures and processes. This lack of respect and the ineffectiveness of social sanctions is said to be strongest among the younger generation of fishers. This young generation is also prominent in the operation s of the longline fishery with which the fortunes of the beach seine fishery are intertwined.
Latin America
Caribbean,Community Based Management,Traditional based management system,Traditional Fisheries
4
7598169630
No
106
Ferrer, Elmer M., Lenore Polotan-de la Cruz, Allan Vera, Jovy Cleofe, Gaynor Tanyang, Randee Cabaces and Michael Reynaldo. A Tale of Two Islands: An Evolution of Coastal Resources Management in the Philippines.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of coastal resources management, and community-based coastal resources management (CBCRM) in particular, in the Philippines. It begins with reviewing written accounts of two marine reserves considered to be pioneering experiments in coastal resources management. The paper then proceeds to distinguish key features between integrated coastal management (ICM) and CBCRM as two distinct tracks/approaches to coastal resources management (CRM). The paper ends with key challenges that we face in pursuing CBCRM.
Asia
Community Based Management,Marine Reserves,ICAM,ICMAM
5
No
107
Fetherston, Elizabeth H. 2005. Sustainability Certification In Community-Based Fisheries. Masters project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Environmental Management degree in The Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences of Duke University
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
Mismanagement of global fisheries resources has an overwhelmingly negative effect on the survival of community-based fisheries. In developing countries, community based fishing is a socially as well as economically valuable activity providing much needed employment and income in areas where there are few alternatives for either. In order to promote sustainability in these areas, the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) are attempting to apply their sustainable seafood ecolabeling program to community-based fisheries. The MSC and WWF examined ten community-based fisheries in 2000, including Prainha do Canto Verde, a fishing village in northeastern Brazil. Though the community harvested lobster in a sustainable manner, the larger fishery did not. The national lobster fishery in Brazil covers over 150,000 square kilometers and is characterized by illegal, unsustainable fishing practices and poor enforcement. As a result, the lobster stock remains in serious decline and faces the possibility of collapse. This failing stock health prevented the MSC from considering Prainha do Canto Verde for sustainability certification. Under the MSC, a sustainable product can never come from an unsustainable fishery, despite pockets of good management and environmentally responsible practices. Currently, the MSC is powerless to promote sustainable practices in community based fisheries because the criteria relate directly to the sustainability of the product. By certifying small-scale communities that harvest sustainably within an admittedly unsustainable system, economic incentives for other communities to change their behaviour could develop, to the benefit of the larger fishery. Recognizing the constraints inherent in the MSC, this project proposes alternative approaches to promoting the welfare of communities and the sustainability of their fisheries.
Latin America
Community Based Management,MSC,Sustainable Fisheries,Lobster
4
No
108
Bender, Andrea. Sharing Fishing Grounds and Sharing Food – how a cultural institution helps to protect an open access resource. No citation available
Documents and Reports
Community based management Tonga
A long tradition of research has proven that common property resources may be protected by a ‘firewall’ of regulations. Open access resources, however, seem to be doomed for certain due to their lack of institutions. What happens in between? Can resources be handled in a sustainable manner if a user community maintains cultural institutions which influence only the resource distribution while at the same time access to the resource itself is not restricted? An island community in the Ha‘apai-Group of Tonga has been chosen to illustrate the principle. In Tonga, unlike other Pacific countries, everybody has free access to all marine resources. With a gradual transition from subsistence to more commercial fishery, non cooperative strategies of resource use are generally arising now as opportunities to sell fish redirect aims towards gain-maximizing. Thus, on the one hand, such non-cooperative strategies are expected to culminate in resource depletion. On the other hand, cooperation (fetokoni‘aki) has always been a highly cherished value in the traditional culture, and the institution of foodsharing has been particularly strong among community members (including fishermen) due to a tight social net. Therefore, villages still can be found where the cultural institution of foodsharing enhances cooperativeness and sustainable resource use. The case study took place in Lofanga. Although they have the same opportunities and economic incentives as the commercial fishermen in neighboring ‘Uiha, the vast majority of fishermen in Lofanga still harvests on a subsistence basis. The few commercial fishermen hold special positions within the village structure as well as within the social net and try to maintain or improve their position by complying with the sharing rule to an above average degree. Giving all their neighbors access to their yield legitimizes their efforts while at the same time it reduces the efforts of other community members. Nevertheless, these open access resources are threatened by commercial fishermen from neighboring islands. Some of these have even started to over-exploit their own resources and to compete with other villages for their fishing grounds. It seems plausible that in order to enable traditional institutions in Tonga to work more efficiently, the open access nature of marine resources should be changed to community-based management.
Oceania
Marine resource Management,open access,Community Based Management
4
No
109
Satria, Arif. Sawen - Institution, local knowledge and myth in fisheries management in North Lombok, Indonesia. Chapter 10, pp 197-208 in Fishers’ Knowledge in Fisheries Science and Management, UNESCO 2006. ISBN 978-92-3-104029-0 -
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
Sawen is a traditional resource management institution that originally integrated the management of forests, the sea and farmland using cognitive aspects (local knowledge and resource management principles), regulatory aspects (codes of conduct) and normative aspects (world views and belief systems). Sawen in North Lombok, Indonesia, was almost eradicated early in the Suharto regime, following an alleged coup attempt by the Indonesian Communist Party in the mid-1960s. The Indonesian reform movement of 1998 brought empowerment to many local communities in the archipelago and made it possible to attempt to revitalize sawen for fisheries management in North Lombok. The initiative came from the community and is compatible with the current government recent reform agenda in devolving power to local authority. This chapter analyses the cause and effect of the cessation of sawen practices in marine resource management, and the recent attempt to revitalize it in Kayangan, a small coastal community in North Lombok. Preliminary findings suggest that revitalized sawen for marine resources was able to assist the local community in addressing issues of overexploitation, access rights and lack of enforcement of fishing regulations in their nearshore waters. More importantly, the revitalization of sawen has:
• restored the marine cultural identity of the community, which had ceased to exist over the three decades of the Suharto regime
• provided a ‘protection institution’ for small-scale fishers
• provided insights (local knowledge and wisdom) for implementation of local fisheries management
• created a legitimate institution of community-based fisheries management in the study area.
Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Community Based Management,Traditional Knowledge
5
Sasi has been featured but sawen has not so far been featured in any paper
No
110
Fong, C.S. The Sabah Tagal system. A jaw-dropping breakthrough in kelah conservation. Rod and Line. Year and other citation details not available
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malaysia
Tagal is a Kadazandusan word which means prohibition. In this case, it means a certain section of the river would be managed by the local kampung community which is empowered to enforce the fisheries rulings to ensure the sustenance of the fish population. At the fisheries experimental site at Kg Babagon where fishing is strictly prohibited, the Pelian (official name of Kelah in Sabah) came back strongly from near-zero existence within a matter of two years. Hundreds of them, averaging about half a kilo each, were easily swimming in groups. However they could only be tackled on flies or fish pellets. The whole idea of Tagal was to allow the river some breathing spaces to recuperate herself. To make the Tagal system practical, a Tagal zone is divided into three sections, namely the Green Zone (where regular regulated fishing is carried out by the kampung folks for their daily consumption), there is an Orange Zone (where fishing is allowed several times a year) and the Red Zone (where fishing is totally prohibited). Each zone is about a kilometre long, To ensure its success, the no-fishing zones are strictly enforced and offenders are severely penalized by the kampong community or the native court. Today as many as 167 kampungs throughout Sabah have adopted the Tagal systems
Asia
Community Based Management,Riverine fisheries
4
No
111
Charles, A. 2006. Community Fishery Rights: Issues, Approaches and Atlantic Canadian Case Studies. IIFET Portsmouth Proceedings
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
Community fishery rights are use rights (the right to take part in fishing) and/or management rights (the right to be involved in managing the fishery) implemented at a local, community level. While by no means a new invention, community rights are receiving renewed attention as a mechanism to improve the effectiveness of management in achieving sustainable fisheries. The rationale for this lies in the potential for better use of local ecological knowledge, for greater acceptance of fishery management rules, for better resolution of conflicts – by balancing ecological, economic, and community goals – and as a result of the above, for positive effects on conservation and sustainability. Community fishery rights relate closely to the increasingly-popular approach of community-based co-management, in which local fishery participants and communities, along with government, have significant responsibility for the management and stewardship of fishery resources. In Canada’s Atlantic region, the fishery policy environment historically has not been attentive to, or supportive of, community rights or management initiatives. However, the negative impacts of a growing concentration of control in the fishery, produced by past policy measures, plus the new reality of aboriginal fisheries in the region, have led to grass-roots interest in community-based systems of fishery rights and fishery management, together with a certain degree of increased official acceptance. Indeed, though less publicized than the region’s fisheries based on individual rights (such as ITQs), there are significant examples in Atlantic Canada of community fishery rights. This paper describes two major categories of these systems: community management boards in the groundfish fishery, and newly-developed commercial fisheries in aboriginal (Mi’kmaq) communities.
N. America
Property rights,Fishing Communities,Community Based Management,Co-management,ITQ,Traditional Knowledge,Ground fish
4
No
112
Johannes, R.E. 1998. The case for data-less marine resource management: examples from tropical nearshore finfisheries. TREE 13:243-246
Documents and Reports
Community based management Palau
Managing most marine finfisheries to achieve optimum yields is an unattainable dream. Protecting these resources from serious depletion through precautionary management seems the only practical option. But even this is of limited application if we demand scientific data for each managed fishery. There are too few researchers to do the work and, in any event, such research would usually not be cost-effective. Thus, we need not merely precautionary management; we need data-less management.
Oceania
Indonesia,Fisheries Management,Precautionary principle,Data
5
No
113
St. Martin, Kevin. 2001. Making Space for Community Resource Management in Fisheries. The Annals of the Association of American Geographers 91: 122-142.
Documents and Reports
Community based management United States
This paper relies upon research conducted in 1997 and 1998 that included an analysis of fisheries scientific and management discourse and a series of interviews with fishers from New England, an important center of fisheries science, management, and industrial development. The discourse analysis examined a wide range of materials (e.g., fisheries science texts, government and management council documents, and newspaper articles). What emerged was a common set of ontological assumptions about the subjects and spaces of fisheries. The interviews revealed a “landscape” of fishing that is different than that assumed by the dominant discourse. This work begins to document this landscape, to re-map the domain of fisheries; it draws the basic contours of this unseen landscape and finds within it a potential for the community management of fisheries.
N. America
Community Based Management,Ground fish,ITQ
4
No
114
Reis, Enir G. and Fernando D'Incao. 2000. The present status of artisanal fisheries of extreme Southern Brazil: an effort towards community-based management. Ocean & Coastal Management 43 585}595
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The continental shelf of the extreme southern Brazil is one of the most productive fishing areas in Brazil. Great part of the commercial species is related to the estuary of Patos Lagoon.
The estuary serves as spawning, nursery and feeding grounds for several species. The artisanal fishery in the estuarine area exists since the end of the last century but from 1982 onwards, catches have declined sharply. Nowadays, the estuarine fishery does not exist as an economic activity, except for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis) and mullet (Mugil platanus). The artisanal fishery involves about 3500 fishermen. Fisheries management in the Patos Lagoon and coastal area has been traditionally done in a top-down process: government decides and acts unilaterally. As a consequence, regulations exist only officially. In 1996 the Forum of Patos Lagoon, a multi-partner entity that includes political, economical and legal institutions, was established. This is the first initiative of the community to become part of the organization and regulation process of the fisheries in the area. The Forum activities initiatives range from evaluation of the present practices of fisheries management and enforcement, encouragement of co-operative and associated initiatives; to planning and development of activities that may lead to the possible recovery of the productive capacity of the Patos Lagoon. A new regulation for the area was produced considering, for the first time, the interest of the community. Although this represents a major step on fisheries management in the area, it resents the lack of a specific management for fisheries that exploit the same stocks in marine waters. The lack of a clear policy for the fishery sector in Brazil represents a major setback to achieve proposed goals in management.
Latin America
Community Based Management,Artisanal Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Policy
4
No
115
Makoloweka, Solomon and Kathleen Shurcliff. 1997. Coastal management in Tanga, Tanzania: a decentralized community-based approach. Ocean & Coastal Management, 37: 349-357
Documents and Reports
Community based management Tanzania
This paper describes a new initiative in coastal management in northeastern Tanzania. The region is within the equatorial part of the Western Indian Ocean. The priority environmental issues being faced include declining fish catches, use of destructive fishing techniques, mangrove cutting and coastal erosion. There is a widespread perception among the users of the coastal resources that management of these issues is inadequate. This programme initiative is developing flexible, community-based approaches to identifying the problems and to take achievable actions. The programme provides training in a wide range of skills and appropriate technical methods for government officials, extension workers and villagers. A collaborative process is evolving that includes participatory appraisals, village environmental committees, facilitation by government extension workers, technical advise and supervision by district technical teams, and regional-wide workshops with key players. Village initiatives taken so far include new by-laws, gear inspection, reef zoning and closures. A number of village mariculture projects are being piloted.
Africa
Community Based Management
4
No
116
Wilson, Lisette and Melanie G. Wiber. 2009. Community perspectives on integrated coastal management: Voices from the Annapolis Basin area, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ocean & Coastal Management 52 559–567
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
This paper seeks to address the missing dimension of the place of Maritime communities in Canadian Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). This work is part of a larger network of projects on ICM through the participatory Coastal Community University Research Alliance. The implementation of ICM with full community involvement is a challenge, for example: communities are not unified or homogenous units, power varies among stakeholders, and silo constructs and turf wars discourage involvement of the wider public. In 2007, a survey of nine community-based organizations and associations and a First Nation community, located within the Annapolis Basin and surrounding areas of the Nova Scotia side of the Bay of Fundy was conducted. The purpose of the survey was to better understand how the concept of ICM is conceptualized and acted upon by local communities and to draw upon this to enrich ICM theory. Approximately 30 projects representing community-based ICM initiatives over the last 10 years were identified, including: capacity building, habitat and stock enhancement/ management programs and responses to new policies or legislative interventions. Several enabling and constraining factors for community involvement in ICM were identified. One key finding is a major difference between community and government approaches. Government ICM initiatives have captured some aspects of the environmental and economic management issues, but have generally failed to consider cultural and social components. They have also failed to take into account the interconnections within and between human and ecological systems. Community members report that government is more interested in forming partnerships with the corporate sector than with the people who rely on local resources. From the community perspective, dealing with the resulting power imbalances must involve revisiting the ‘‘core values’’ that underpin regulation and resource exploitation. This study demonstrates that communities are usually the ‘‘first responders"’’ for many ecological problems, and there is a willingness to take responsibility for the management of resources. ICM is already embedded in on-going community projects, networks and forums. These initiatives promote the principles identified in Canada’s Oceans Act and Oceans Strategy, but the relevant government agencies have provided little support to them. ICM has the potential to bring together many issues that can be addressed by the multi-stakeholder process, but this needs to be facilitated by on-going government collaborations, contributions and recognition.
N. America
Community Based Management,ICAM
4
No
117
Hong, Nguyen Thi Hoa. Co-Management In Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Viet Nam A Transaction Costs Approach. Masters Thesis. The Norwegian College of Fishery Science University of Tromso, Norway & Nha Trang University, Vietnam, May 2010
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vietnam
This paper highlights the co-management of an MPA in Trao Reef locally managed marine reserve, which was established in 2001 to protect and rehabilitate fisheries resources in general and the coral reef in particular. In addition, this paper demonstrates one way to approach comanagement which include the transaction-costs, the method for measuring the transaction costs in fisheries co-management system. Transaction costs are defined as “the cost of transacting, which consists of the costs of measuring the valuable attributes of what is being exchanged and the costs of protecting rights and policing and enforcing agreements” (North 1990). The study is based on fisheries management, co-management, transaction-cost literature and secondary and primary data. The reduction of transaction-costs in the last stage of comanagement regime is used to choose alternative institutional arrangements for managing a fishery for public policy decisions. This study is also the first paper to mention transaction-costs in fisheries co-management in Viet Nam.
Asia
MPA,Co-management,Community Based Management,Bioeconomics
4
Economics based – talks about transaction costs
No
118
Evans, Louisa, Nia Cherrett and Diemuth Pems. l2011. Assessing the impact of fisheries co-management interventions in developing countries: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Management 92 1938-1949
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Co-management is now established as a mainstream approach to small-scale fisheries management across the developing world. A comprehensive review of 204 potential cases reveals a lack of impact assessments of fisheries co-management. This study reports on a meta-analysis of the impact of fisheries co-management in developing countries in 90 sites across 29 case-studies. The top five most frequently measured process indicators are participation, influence, rule compliance, control over resources, and conflict. The top five most frequently measured outcome indicators are access to resources, resource well-being, fishery yield, household well-being, and household income. To deal with the diversity of the 52 indicators measured and the different ways these data are collected and analysed, the authors apply a coding system to capture change over time. The results of the meta-analysis suggest that, overall fisheries comanagement delivers benefits to end-users through improvements in key process and outcome indicators. However, the dataset as a whole is constituted primarily of data from the Philippines. When we exclude this body of work, few generalisations can be made about the impact of fisheries co-management. The lack of comparative data suitable for impact assessment and the difficulties in comparing data and generalising across countries and regions reiterates calls in other fields for more systematic approaches to understanding and evaluating governance frameworks.
Co-management,Community Based Management
4
No
119
Alcala, Angel C. and Garry R. Russ. 2006. No-take Marine Reserves and Reef Fisheries Management in the Philippines: A New People Power Revolution. Ambio 35:245-254
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
The marine-conservation and reef fisheries–management program that exists today in the Philippines had humble beginnings in the 1970s at Sumilon and Apo islands. These islands have produced some of the best evidence available that no-take reserves, protected and managed by local communities, can play a key role in biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Perhaps more importantly, they served as models for an extraordinary expansion of no-take reserves nationally in the Philippines in the past 2 decades. This expansion contributed substantially to a major shift in national policy of management of marine resources. This policy shift partially devolved responsibility from a centralized government bureaucracy to local governments and local communities. Local governments now comanage, along with the national government, marine resources out to 15 km from the coast. Giving some responsibility for management of marine resources to coastal people dependent upon those resources represents, in a very real sense, another ‘‘people power revolution’’ in the Philippines.
Asia
Community Based Management,Co-management,LMMPA,No-take Zones
4
No
120
Acheson, J.M. and R. Gardner. 2010. The evolution of conservation rules and norms in the Maine lobster industry. Ocean & Coastal Management 53 524-534
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Natural resources of all kinds have been overexploited by user groups who cannot or will not develop rules to constrain their own exploitive efforts. One notable exception is the Maine lobster industry, where an effective set of conservation laws has been developed due, in great part, to the strong support of the industry. In the early decades of the 20th century, however, the lobster industry was marked by widespread violations of the existing conservation laws and opposition to developing more. This article explores the way that the pirate ethic gave way to the conservation ethic in the 1930s. The authors’ explorations in evolutionary game theory suggest that this change was produced by three factors: costs and benefits of defection from the conservation ethic; numbers of people accepting the conservation ethic quality rule; and events that shocked the system from one state to another. They argue that the shock to the system in the late 1920s and 1930s was caused by massive stock failure which changed the attitudes of many fishermen about the need for conservation. People began to report violations of the law, which made law enforcement more effective and quickly led to a cascade of fishermen abandoning the pirate ethic. In the late 1930s, increasing catches, in combination with a number of other social, technical, and economic factors continued the upward spiral.
N. America
Lobster,Maine,Conservation
4
No
121
Untitled!
Documents and Reports
http://www.science2action.org/files/sciencereports/individualstudies/fiji-pacific/fijiculturalroles.pdf
Community based management Fiji
The aim of the study was to gather relevant information on specific cultural issues that enhanced coastal resource management programmes. The initiative was valuable because even though customary practices were the basis of the community-based marine resource management activities spreading in Fiji and other parts of Oceania over the last decade, little research had been undertaken on the influence of the cultural roles. Moreover, the challenges that were facing community-based marine resources management today (e.g. poaching) made it critical that the influence of cultural roles be better understood and addressed. For this reason, cultural roles had joined the ecologic, economic, social and economic factors as important parameters that needed to be better understood for the effective management of the marine resources at the community level.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Traditional based management system,Coastal resources management
5
No
122
Govan, H. et al. 2009. Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the South Pacific: meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs. SPREP/WWF/WorldFish-Reefbase/CRISP. 95pp + 5 annexes
Community based management South Pacific Islands
The South Pacific has experienced a remarkable proliferation of Marine Managed Areas in the last decade. These protected areas, implemented by over 500 communities spanning 15 independent countries and territories represent a unique global achievement. The approaches being developed at national levels are built on a unique feature of the region, customary tenure and resource access, and make use of, in most cases, existing community strengths in traditional knowledge and governance, combined with a local awareness of the need for action, resulting in what have been most aptly termed Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs). The main driver in most cases, is a community desire to maintain or improve livelihoods, often related to perceived threats to food security or local economic revenue. In the South Pacific, conservation and sustainable use are often seen as inseparable as part of the surviving concepts of traditional environmental stewardship. The extent of this shift towards Community Based Resource Management in Melanesia and Polynesia is unprecedented on a global scale and is the subject of this report. The results show that a locally managed approach to protected areas is virtually the only approach to Marine Managed Areas (MMAs) actively pursued at present in the independent countries of the Pacific Islands Region. In the independent countries, the effort of communities and their supporting governmental and nongovernmental partners has resulted in over 12,000 km2 coming under active management of which more than 1,000 km2 are “no-take”. This progress comes at a time when older models of larger, centrally planned reserves have failed in almost all cases resulting in the need to review the inclusion of some 14,000 km2 of such “paper parks” in national and global databases of the region.
Oceania
Community Based Management
5
No
123
Whyte, Adele L.H., James J. Bell, Kristina M. Ramstad and Jonathan P. A. Gardner. An Indigenous-led Community Challenge to Fisheries Management in New Zealand: the Revival of Regional Scale Management Practices? In press, Pacific Conservation Biology
Documents and Reports
Community based management New Zealand
Marine, coastal and freshwater fisheries are culturally, ecologically, recreationally and economically important in New Zealand (NZ) and across the world. Over-exploitation of stocks has resulted in declining catches, particularly in the last 50 years, which has signalled the need for strategies to protect these valuable resources, while allowing sustainable exploitation. This article outlines an ambitious and novel community-led approach to engage regional stakeholders in local fisheries management, initiated and led by Ngāti Kahungunu (a Māori iwi or tribal grouping) in NZ. This initiative is a significant move away from today’s highly centralised national form of fisheries management, and is a step towards a regional form of management that is led by the community for the benefit of the community.
Australia/Oceania
Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
4
First paper on NZ
No
124
Govan, H. A. Schwarz and D. Boso. 2011. Towards Integrated Island Management: Lessons from Lau, Malaita, for the implementation of a national approach to resource management in Solomon Islands. WorldFish Center Report to SPREP.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands has recently developed substantial policy aiming to support inshore fisheries management, conservation, climate change adaptation and ecosystem approaches to resource management. A large body of experience in community based approaches to management has developed but “upscaling” and particularly the implementation of nation-wide approaches has received little attention so far. With the emerging challenges posed by climate change and the need for ecosystem wide and integrated approaches attracting serious donor attention, a national debate on the most effective approaches to implementation is urgently needed. This report discusses potential implementation of “a cost-effective and integrated approach to resource management that is consistent with national policy and needs” based on a review of current policy and institutional structures and examination of a recent case study from Lau, Malaita using stakeholder, transaction and financial cost analyses.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Bioeconomics,EbA
4
No
125
Halim, Sharina Abdul, Hood Salleh, Ibrahim Komoo and Mazlin Mokhtar. Enhancing local community participation in resource management and conservation through learning: Experience from Langkawi Island, Malaysia. No citation available
Documents and Reports
http://congreso.us.es/cesrea/OKPapers2/SharinaAbdulpaper.pdf
Community based management Malaysia
The role and importance of education and learning has received considerable attention in these recent years as one of effective ways to ensure participatory approach in natural resource management and conservation. Apart from local participation in benefit sharing, engaging them in collaborative manner with local authorities to manage resources has the potential to transform behavior. This transformation could assist in shifting patterns in resource utilization and governance towards sustainability. In Langkawi Island, the setting up of co-operative community resource management Komuniti Pengurusan Sumber Perikanan (KPSP) or formerly known as fishermen economic group Kumpulan Ekonomi Nelayan (KEN) in 2001 are significant attempt that emphasizes the value of local involvement in natural resource management. This study aims to establish the opportunities for learning afforded through the resource management initiatives and consider the learning outcomes from such opportunities as observed from KPSP committees in selected fishing communities in the Island. In particular, concepts from transformative learning theory are applied to understand how interaction among adults through participation in resource management can promote learning and social change. The findings from this study indicated a number of motivators and challenges of learning such as opportunities for dialogues, leadership and changes in behavior at community level
Asia
Community Based Management,Fisheries Management
1
No
126
Dumas, P., H. Jimenez, M. Leopold, G. Petro and R. Jimmy. 2010. Effectiveness of village-based marine reserves on reef invertebrates in Emau, Vanuatu. Environmental Conservation 37 : 364–372
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vanuatu
Despite the current expansion of community-based marine conservation initiatives in the Pacific, few studies have specifically addressed their ecological efficiency to restore or enhance reef invertebrate resources. This paper investigated the effects of two very small (< 0.05 km2) recent village-based marine reserves (tabu areas) located along the shallow fringing reef of Emau island, Vanuatu. Surveys focused on heavily harvested species (namely trochus, giant clams and green snails) and involved both experienced scientists and local villagers. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected by snorkelling along random transect belts located inside and outside the tabu areas, using simple PVC measuring tools specifically developed for participative monitoring. Habitat was assessed using a photographic method to quantitatively describe varied reef substrata. Resource recovery varied between the areas as a result of species specific responses to contrasted reserve characteristics and local management practices. Fast-growing mobile Trochus niloticus exhibited strong positive abundance and size responses only within the older larger tabu area through the combined effects of protection from harvesting and translocation actions by local fishers. Similar trends were observed to a lesser extent for sessile slow-growing giant clams (Tridacna spp.), but these were not significant after four years of closure. Despite historical evidence of their presence in the area, surveys emphasized the severe population collapse of the heavily targeted green snail (Turbo marmoratus). Under certain conditions, very small-scale reserves, such as those implemented by village-based conservation initiatives, can rapidly and efficiently enhance local reef invertebrate resources. It is still unclear whether the changes are sufficient to restore critical levels of spawning biomass at larger scale and reverse the severe depletion of invertebrate resources occurring in Vanuatu.
Oceania
Shellfish,Community Based Management,No-take Zones,Marine Reserves
4
No
127
The Result of Panglima Laot Meeting in the Special Province of Aceh on 23- 25 January 1992 in Langsa, East Aceh
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
These are conclusions drawn by the participants of Panglima Laot
Meeting in the Special Province of Aceh about preservation and development of the culture, custom, and traditional institutions in the Special Province of Aceh. They felt, in general, that culture and custom of laot / sea is a custom that is needed by the fishermen to keep the order in fishing and the living of the people who live in the beach which should be protected with the government’s participation. The specific part of the conclusion refers to the organization, its structure and functioning. The document has appendices on the traditional law of laot / sea in the procedure of fish hauling and the traditional law in the sea zone of districts of Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh, Pidie, Sabang, North Aceh, East Aceh and South Aceh.
Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Tenure and Use,Customary Rights,Customary Tenure
5
No
128
Techera, Erika J. 2009. Customary Law and Community-Based Fisheries Management across the South Pacific Region. Journal of the Australasian Law Teachers Association (2):279-292.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Fiji
In many islands of the South Pacific there is evidence of positive conservation outcomes founded upon community-based environmental management (CBEM) of marine biodiversity. But community based initiatives need to be supported by legal frameworks to facilitate and strengthen them as well as to address specific issues of legitimacy and enforcement. While recognising the need for a legal framework, there is little guidance available to the law and policy-makers who are charged with drafting effective laws to facilitate marine governance. This paper considers the legal frameworks that support CBEM in the region and, in particular, the role of customary law. The experiences of the Fiji Islands, Samoa and Vanuatu are investigated here as they may be of assistance to other SIDS seeking to establish similar cross-cultural environmental law regimes.
Oceania
Traditional based management system,Community Based Management
4
No
129
Cordell, John. A Sea of Dreams: Valuing Culture in Marine Conservation. The Ethnographic Institute, Berkeley, CA 94707. May 1, 2007
Documents and Reports
Community based management South Pacific Islands
In this paper the author assesses the status of culture in marine management, particularly in emerging marine protected area (MPA) frameworks and discourse. A sense of the breadth, direction, and potential of work in this area can be provided by analyzing experiences in two tropical coastal regions which geopolitically and in terms of culture history are far removed from one another: N.E. Brazil and N. Australia / W. Oceania.
Oceania,Latin America
Traditional Management Systems,Tenure and Use,MPA,Melanesia,Indigenous Communities
4
No
130
Cordell, John. 2000. Remapping the waters: The significance of sea tenure-based protected areas. Third Conference on Property Rights, Economics, and Environment: Marine Resources International Center for Research on Environmental Issues Universite d’Aix-Marseille III, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Documents and Reports
Community based management South Pacific Islands
In this paper, the author talks about sea tenure using illustrative studies and recent conservation project reports
to make the case for why more clearly defined property rights, in general, and sea tenure practices, in particular, have a critical role to play in designing and managing marine protected areas; and why the persistence of sea tenure-based fishing, though sometimes interpreted as a liability in the international crusade to inventory and save biodiversity, with more support from conservation groups and management agencies could be converted to a key asset.
Oceania
Property rights,MPA,Customary Rights
5
No
131
Diegues, A.C. 2005. (Ed.) Maritime Anthropology in Brazil. Center for Research on Human Population and Wetlands in Brazil – USP, Sao Paulo.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
In the last decades, coastal issues have become a matter of concern both for academics and development practitioners. During this period the Brazilian coast and adjacent waters, even in remote areas of the Northeast and of suffered from increasing pollution and degradation, due to a rapid industrialization, urbanization, deforestation and over fishing. Coastal communities, particularly those of artisanal fishermen, that were geographically and socially isolated in the past, also became important social actors in this process. In most cases, the beaches where they lived were expropriated by land speculators, for sale to tourists. In the mid 1970's, some of these communities and small-scale fishermen organizations started reacting against land expropriation and over fishing by industrial fishing boats that threatened their livelihood. At the same time, increasing pollution of the rivers and estuaries, particularly in the Northeast threatened important ecosystems on which artisanal fishermen depend for their livelihood. Later, this social reaction was backed by progressive sectors of the Catholic Church and Unions, during the period of re-democratization of the country, following twenty years of military dictatorship. In some regions, these fishermen obtained a high social visibility and were able to create new democratic institutions to counteract those controlled by local oligarchies.
This process generated a growing interest by researchers to analyse these complex changes. It became clear that the methodology used by the social sciences to study social processes in rural areas was not appropriate to tackle the changing ecological and social relationships between society and the marine environment. Some of these researchers, particularly anthropologists, started claiming the need to establish a new and specific field or sub-discipline within Social Anthropology to deal with the complex relationships between man and marine ecosystems, called Marine Socio-Anthropology. This Reader is an attempt to give an overall and interdisciplinary view of the research in different fields of the social sciences undertaken by several Brazilian universities aiming to analyse the processes of social change in coastal communities, particularly those of artisanal fishermen. It is a result of papers presented at a series of national workshops called "Social Sciences and the Sea", organized by NUPAUB-Research Center on Human Population and Wetlands, of the University of São Paulo, from 1988 to 1991.
Latin America
Artisanal Fisheries,Traditional Knowledge,Indigenous Knowledge,Tenure and Use,Fisheries Management,Traditional Management Systems,Marine tenure
4
No
132
Cudney-Bueno, Richard. 2007. Marine reserves, community-based management, and small-scale benthic fisheries in the Gulf of California, Mexico. PhD dissertation, The University of Arizona.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
The author addresses the emergence, governance, and effects of marine reserve efforts in the Gulf of California, Mexico, emphasizing a community-based marine reserve network established by the commercial diving sector of Puerto Peñasco, Sonora. This network emerged as a means to manage benthic resources in rocky reefs, primarily rock scallop (Spondylus calcifer) and black murex snail (Hexaplex nigritus). The study also provides an analysis of growth, reproductive ecology, and management of both species. The author shows that local cooperation to manage fisheries commons incorporating the use of marine reserves can emerge rapidly. Furthermore, this cooperation can be sustained in a fishery spanning no more than two generations, effectively avoiding a local “tragedy of the commons”. A blend of social group characteristics, fishers’ ecological knowledge and participation in monitoring, and relatively rapid ecological response of the system can play key roles in reinforcing cooperation. He provides evidence of rapid effects of reserves on adjacent fisheries via larvae dispersal. Visual censuses revealed that density of young rock scallop (individuals recruited since reserve establishment) had increased by up to 40.7% within coastal reserves and by 20.6% in fished sites in only two years. Changes were also evident for black murex, with more than a three-fold increase in the density of juveniles within fished sites. These effects, however, were spatially-constricted, evident only for the northern portion of the reserve network. These empirical findings are more indicative of a reserve effect rather than other confounding factors and are consistent with field oceanography data (release of satellite-tracked drifters) and outputs from larvae dispersal models. Finally, the author shows that just as cooperation can emerge, it can rapidly fall with cascading effects to the system’s resilience, particularly amidst threats to social capital and pressure from outside the community. He concludes that even when community-based reserves are effective within the biophysical and local social context, their long-term efficacy will rely on the system’s capacity to control access and will demand the institutional capacity to do so. In Mexico this implies, at the least, the government’s formal recognition of community-based initiatives and a means to give viability to these efforts.
Latin America
Community Based Management,LMMPA,Marine Reserves,Indigenous Knowledge
5
No
133
Palsson, Gisli. 1982. Territoriality among Icelandic Fishermen. Acta Sociologica (25). Supplement: 5-13
Documents and Reports
Community based management Iceland
The article discusses the nature and significance of strategies of managing access to fishing territories. The data relate to the indigenous and private strategies used by Icelandic fishermen. Such strategies vary with time and with fishing technology. The article discusses changes in the control of access and their implications for the management of information among skippers. Several scholars have reported claims of territoriality among fishermen and have referred to them as manifestations of property rights and ownership. It is argued here that territorial claims should be seen as pragmatic attempts to manage the conduct of fishing.
Europe
Property rights,TURF
4
One of the few from Europe
No
134
Kishore, Rosemarie and Himawatee. Ramsundar. Community-Based Fisheries Management: A Case Study of Fishing Communities from Ortoire to Guayaguayare, Trinidad. 59th Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, Belize City: Belize. 59: 99 – 110.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Trinidad and Tobago
This research focuses on the development of community-based fisheries management in fishing communities from Ortoire to Guayaguayare, Trinidad and examines factors such as the nature of the fishery, the socio-cultural environment, and the development of community organisations which are intrinsic to this community-based approach. Research methodology included the use of face-to-face interviews guided by questionnaires to capture information on fishing operations, fisher households, and a perception and attitude survey on resource conditions and fisheries management issues. Other research techniques included the use of key informants, focus group meetings, and cognitive mapping of fishing grounds and fish resources. The shared fishing areas, similar fishing methods and seasonal nature of the artisanal fishery facilitate a migration of boats and fishers across the seven fishing landing sites. This migration and the kinship among the fishers contribute to strong social cohesion, which supports the concept of a single fishing community. The formation of two fishing associations, and the fishers’ ability to negotiate on their own behalf with other resource users, allow for these fishing communities to engage in a participatory approach with government, research institutions and other resource users in developing a framework for managing the local fishing industry from Ortoire to Guayaguayare.
N. America
Community Based Management,Artisanal Fisheries
4
No
135
Olomola, Ade S. 1993. The Traditional Approach Towards Sustainable Management of Common Property Fishery Resources in Nigeria. MAST 6: 92-109
Documents and Reports
Community based management Nigeria
The search for effective ways of managing renewable natural resources is currently being intensified in many developing countries. In order to attain optimum utilization and renewability of the resources, emphasis is often placed on state regulation and private ownership to the utter neglect of local collective actions. Both approaches have made limited impact on the sustainable development of fishery resources. The root cause of failure has been the misperception of the property regimes under which fishery resources are being managed within the local environment. The study reveals that traditional fishery management under a regime of common property could be effective and so alternative management strategies such as privatization and public control being frequently recommended in the literature will be a misplaced priority.
Africa
Property rights,CPR,Property regime,Traditional management practices
4
No
136
World Bank, Engagement of poor fishing communities in the identification of resource management and investment needs. June 2006.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vietnam
Over the past decade, the resource base supporting fishing communities in coastal and inland Vietnam has been depleted or is in a state of serious decline to the point where livelihoods are seriously threatened. Therefore, it is critical to move towards improved management of the fishery sector complemented by the development of alternative income generating activities. Improved fisheries management would need to be comprehensive, addressing issues of the use of captured fisheries gear and the establishment of environmentally sound practices and actions to improve and sustain fisheries productivity and biodiversity. To achieve the above, a co-management strategy would need to be developed that would engage local households and communities; local organizations (Fishermen’s Associations, Women’s Unions, other NGOs); local government departments (DOFI, MPI, PPCs); credit institutions (VBARD and BSP), and the Ministry of Fisheries. The current Vietnamese legal framework allocates specific responsibilities to local governments with regard to the management of fisheries, coastal and inland waters, aquaculture development, and the establishment of protected areas. Experience has shown that direct engagement of all stakeholders in formulating management plans for natural resource use is the strongest approach to assuring sustainable and productive use of those resources. The main objective of this work is to develop the information required to formulate a follow-on project that would be of benefit the poorest fishing communities in particular in the country through sustainable development and management of inland aquatic and coastal resources. This would be done under that operation through the implementation of pilot demonstrations that would include alternative income generation activities such as (a) aquaculture, handicrafts, and other options that would be identified during the seed-grant phase; (b) provision of training for management, environmental monitoring and productive activities; and (c) strengthening of local institutions and community groups in cooperative decision making for sustainable resource use. These pilot-scale activities would be selected through a community driven demand process that would draw together all interest groups, including local governments, NGOs, and others.
Asia
Community Based Management,Co-management,Fisheries Management
4
No
137
Lopes, S. and H. Gervasio. Co-Management of Artisanal Fisheries in Mozambique: A case Study of Kwirikwidge Fishing Centre, Angoche District, Nampula Province. ICLARM
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mozambique
The present study is a continuation of a research begun in 1996 in the Kwirikwidge area in Mozambique and its main objective is to evaluate the present stage of the implementation and the expectations of the co-management of fishing resources in that area. The study was carried out using two types of sources: written and oral. The written sources included various documents considered important for the theoretical background of the study. These included sectorial reports, fishing legislation, Maritime Fishing Regulation, master Plan, various monographies about Angoche district. The consultations were carried out in Maputo and Angoche. The oral souces consisted of semi-structured surveys (attached) which involved interviewing fishermen, Maritime Administration Officers and other authorities including some local Non-governmental Organizations. The results of the research demonstrated that the situation in Kwirikwidge is very encouraging, and can even be said that it exceeded the expectations. However, despite the encouraging scenario, the (still) non legal or official recognition of the established co-management community committees and the (still) non understanding of the concept, objectives and advantages of the co-management system on the part of some of the sector’s relevant institution, hampers the desirable development of the a solid structure in the country as a whole and, in particular, in the area under study.
Africa
Co-management,Community Based Management
4
No
138
Scholz, Uwe and Sloans Chimatiro. 2004.. Malawi. Institutionalizing Traditional Community based Natural Resource Management. IK Notes, No. 64
Documents and Reports
http://www.worldbank.org/afr/ik/default
Community based management Malawi
Fisheries management in Malawi has evolved from a traditional system to a centralized regime, followed by the recently introduced co-management fisheries systems. During colonial rule, and through later regimes, a centralized managed system was in place. As in many other countries, these centralized regimes experienced a number of difficulties. These centralized regimes often obliterated traditional leadership values in favour of state authority. The decline of fish catches led to the implementation of a new fisheries management strategy by the Department of Fisheries (DOF), carried out with assistance from the Federal Republic of Germany, through the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). The strategy included a decentralized, participatory management approach to replace the centralized management style, which had failed to enforce regulations, in particular the increased use of destructive fishing gear like shore and open water seine nets, often operated with mosquito netting. The decentralization of decision-making to the fisherfolk in Malawi coincided with the shift in Malawi’s politics in 1994 from an autocratic one-party state to a multiparty democracy. In the same year, the pilot measures of a community- based fisheries management program were implemented through a project known today as the National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP). This is discussed in the paper.
Africa
Community Based Management,Traditional Management Systems,Decentralisation
4
No
139
McCay, Bonnie J. A Fishermen's Cooperative, Limited: Indigenous Resource Management in a Complex Society. Anthropological Quarterly, Special Issue: Maritime Anthropology, 53 (1980): 29-38
Documents and Reports
Community based management United States
This paper discusses certain aspects of a fishermen's cooperative of the New York Bight region of the Middle Atlantic coast. Emphasized are the ways in which the cooperative functions as a vehicle of indigenous fisheries management, as part of its larger function of helping its members cope with environmental uncertainty.
N. America
Cooperative,Community Based Management,Fisheries Management,Quota
5
No
140
McGoodwin, James Russell. Mexico's Marginal Inshore Pacific Fishing Cooperatives. Anthropological Quarterly, Special Issue: Maritime Anthropology, 53 1980: 39-57
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
Following their establishment by the central government in 1933, Mexico's inshore Pacific fishing cooperatives enjoyed great prosperity. Today, however, they are marginal entities, and many are failing. The inshore cooperatives of south Sinaloa state are examined as a case in point. Their decline was brought about by a multiplicity of factors-corruption, counter-productive technological innovations, natural catastrophe-and especially by an underlying structural flaw in their organization: as State-instituted and controlled entities, they are not autonomous. Thus, as the central government developed economically more viable offshore shrimp producing cooperatives, the inshore cooperatives were unable to respond competitively, and declined.
Latin America
Fisheries Management,Cooperative
4
No
141
Alan T. White, and Helge P. Vogt. 2000. Philippine Coral Reefs Under Threat: Lessons Learned After 25 Years of Community-Based Reef Conservation. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40: 537-550
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
The Philippine archipelago consists of more than 7000 islands. Most of these islands have extensive coral reefs or coral communities. For centuries, reefs and their associated resources have provided the livelihood for a large portion of the coastal population. However, reefs as sources of income are threatened by over-exploitation and by the use of destructive fishing methods. The scientific community, natural resource managers and many of the small-scale fishermen are aware that catches are falling rapidly while the fast growing population requires increasing amounts of fish. Since the early 1970s, various programs have tried to counter the decline of Philippine coastal resources. This article reports about successful examples of reef conservation in the provinces of Negros Oriental, Batangas and the Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park, Palawan. In all three localities, significant areas of reefs are legally protected and sustainable management regimes are working effectively. In Negros and
Batangas this success is partly a result of intensive education programs that contributed to the active involvement of the traditional fishermen and the larger coastal community. Community participation and co-operation of all institutions involved in resource management are regarded as the key elements of sustainable reef management in these areas. This paper presents the objectives, programs and achievements as well as the fruitful networking of the participating organizations. Particular emphasis is placed on the experiences and lessons emanating from 25 years of reef conservation while showing the overall objective of sustainable use is still far on the horizon. It is suggested that more integrated forms of management, involving various stakeholders, and that address the numerous intertwined issues, will save Philippine reefs.
Asia
Community Based Management,Coral Reefs
4
No
142
Soeftestad, L.T. 2004. Coastal and Marine Resources in the Caribbean: Local co-management and regional knowledge management. CBNRM Net Papers.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Caribbean
Co-management of coastal and marine resources in the Caribbean appears advanced in contrast with other regions. This makes a comparative study of the causes and special characteristics of the region interesting. This is done first by reviewing local level community based coastal resource management project in select locations in the Caribbean and elsewhere in the world and second, by discussing these from the macro level point of view of knowledge management. Assessment of local management practices is done from the point of view of community based natural resource management (CBNRM) understood as management of natural resources using a detailed plan developed and agreed to by all concerned stakeholders. The approach is community based in that the communities managing the resources have the legal rights, the local institutions, and the economic incentives to take substantial responsibility for sustained use of these resources. Under the natural resource management plan, communities become the primary implementers, assisted and monitored by technical and other services located in the public sector.
N. America
Community Based Management,Co-management
4
No
143
Michael King & Ueta Fa’asili. 1999. A network of small, community-owned Village Fish Reserves in Samoa. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #11 – September, pp2-6
Documents and Reports
Community based management American Samoa
Under a community-based fisheries extension programme in Samoa, 44 coastal villages have developed their own Village Fisheries Management Plans. Each plan sets out the resource management and conservation undertakings of the community, and the servicing and technical support required from the government Fisheries Division. Community undertakings ranged from enforcing laws banning destructive fishing methods to protecting critical habitats such as mangrove areas. An unexpectedly large number of villages (38) chose to establish small Village Fish Reserves in part of their traditional fishing areas. Although by social necessity many of the community-owned reserves are small, their large number, often with small separating distances, forms a network of fish refuges. Such a network may maximise linking of larval sources and suitable settlement areas and provide the means by which adjacent fishing areas are eventually replenished with marine species through reproduction and migration. As the Fish Reserves are being managed by communities which have a direct interest in their continuation and success, prospects for continuing compliance and commitment appear high. Results confirm our belief that the responsible management of marine resources will be achieved only when fishing communities themselves accept it as their responsibility.
Oceania
Marine Reserves,Community Based Management,Fisheries Management
4
No
144
Rivera, R and G. F. Newkirk. 1997. Power from the people: a documentation of nongovernmental organizations' experience in community based coastal resource management in the Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management, 36: 73-95
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
Community-based coastal resource management projects facilitated by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the Philippines have explored approaches to decrease poverty-driven over-exploitation of coastal resources. There has been little reporting and analysis of such activities until recently. Nine case studies have recently been published and this paper presents a brief summary of these, along with an analysis of the trends and themes identified. Though diverse and covering the Philippines from Mindanao to Luzon, the case studies highlight the value of community commitment and participation in decisions regarding, and in the implementation of, resource management in ways that consider not only the bio-physical aspects of resource management but the social, economic and legal implications. Experience in working with local government has been both successful and limited. Successful projects raise hopes for further progress through education and organization of communities to improve livelihoods and protect coastal resources.
Asia
Community Based Management,Participatory Management
4
No
145
Jacoby, Charles, Craig Manning, Sandy Fritz and Louise Rose. 1997. Three recent initiatives for monitoring of Australian coasts by the community Ocean & Coastal Management, 36: 205-226
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
In Australia, community concerns about coastal management are leading to development of monitoring programs to support managers. Monitoring is a critical component of any management process designed to cope with the uncertainty that is always present in predictions of impacts. Long-term monitoring will require community involvement. The community must 'own' monitoring and its outputs if programmes are to remain viable and if management decisions arising from monitoring are to be implemented effectively. Recently, three different but convergent initiatives began to seek these goals. One approach centres on using a community-supported ecotourism destination as a base. A second initiative arises from state government planning and community concern about perceived environmental degradation. The third effort is being coordinated by the Commonwealth government in an attempt to improve coastal management. All three approaches further community efforts to produce rigorous data that enhance decision making. In return, the community receives interesting and enjoyable activities that maintain their interest, as well as improved coastal management.
Australia/Oceania
Community Based Management,Ecotourism,Decision Making,Indigenous Communities,Coastal Area Management
4
No
146
McDaniel, Josh. 1997. Communal fisheries management in the Peruvian Amazon. Human Organization; Summer 56: 147-152
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Community-level management of lake fisheries is becoming an increasingly viable alternative in many areas of Amazonia. Population growth and increased commercial fishing have led to intense competition and conflict over fishery resources. Conservation can only be successful in these competitive environments when resource management is adapted to solving problems at the local level. This study examines the communal management of lake fisheries in Chino, a community on the Tahuayo river south of Iquitos in the Northeastern Peruvian Amazon. The history and organization of the management system is presented with an analysis of the relation between fishing efficiency and specific tenets of the management system.
Latin America
Amazon,Lake Fisheries
4
No
147
Nunan, Fiona. 2006. Empowerment and Institutions: Managing Fisheries in Uganda. World Development 34: 1316–1332
Documents and Reports
Community based management Uganda
The perception of communities as homogeneous and concern over representation and accountability of structures are key critiques of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). A focus on understanding institutions that mediate access to, and control over, natural resources is seen as a way forward to improving management regimes that include local people. Experience in the implementation of integrated lake management in Uganda is drawn on to understand how institutions can be challenged to improve access to fisheries for marginalized stakeholders. Processes such as empowerment and the formation of accountable and representative structures are part of the way forward.
Africa
Community Based Management,Empowerment,Stakeholders,Fisheries Management
4
No
148
Weinstein, Martin S. 2000. Pieces of the Puzzle: Solutions for Community-Based Fisheries Management from Native Canadians, Japanese Cooperatives, and Common Property Researchers. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review12: 375-412
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
The author looks at community based management as practiced by the indigenous peoples of Canada and the modern day management regimes; and the historical management systems in Japan in contrast to the current management methods. This article's objective, the author says, was to present some pieces for solving the puzzle of community-based fisheries management. There are two possibilities for understanding these pieces. The first is that the pieces create a story in and of themselves. The second is that the pieces are more than the sum of their parts. With the first possibility, the pieces may actually be linked as part of a story in their own right. Community-based management is nothing new in Canada or elsewhere in the Americas. It becomes a novelty only if the millennia of history are ignored by re-constructing the story as the history of European settlement. In making changes to resource use and management, the Canadian government followed European traditions. The scale of access and management followed the political map rather than the biology of the resources, and the lessons learned by aboriginal societies were simply discounted. The resource management knowledge and creativity of these societies must be honored rather than ignored.
Asia,N. America
Japan,Indigenous Communities,Traditional Management Systems,Community Based Management
4
No
149
Ferse, Sebastian C.A., Maria Manez Costa, Kathleen Schwerdtner Manez , Dedi S. Adhuri and Marion Glaser. 2010. Allies, not aliens: increasing the role of local communities in marine protected area implementation. Environmental Conservation 37: 23–34
Documents and Reports
Analysis
Community based management N/a
Various management approaches have been proposed to address the alarming depletion of marine coastal resources. Prominent among them are community based management and the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). The overall poor performance of MPAs can be traced to a failure to effectively include local communities in the design and implementation of relevant measures. Recent efforts have incorporated aspects of community-based management into a hybrid form of management, which ideally builds upon existing local management practices. A key challenge lies in the development of appropriate frameworks that allow for the successful participation of local communities in management. A review of studies on MPA design and community-based marine resource management and fieldwork observations provides suggestions on how to address current socioeconomic shortcomings in MPA design and implementation, successfully involving local communities in order to provide a better local basis for effective larger MPA networks. A combination of MPA tools as the formal frame and community-based natural resource management as the adaptive core that recognizes local communities as allies, not aliens, is needed to develop successful conservation approaches.
General
Adaptive management,Community Based Management,Traditional Management Systems,MPA,IK
5
No
150
Kingston, Jeffrey B.1991. Manipulating Tradition: The State, Adat, Popular Protest, and Class Conflict in Colonial Lampung. Indonesia, 51: 21-45
Documents and Reports
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3351064
Community based management Indonesia
Throughout the colonized world, colonial administrators sought to articulate their policies in the idiom of indigenous traditions and institutions. This process of manipulating tradition to serve the interests of the state was designed to gain legitimacy among the colonized and to enable small numbers of colonizers to augment and project their limited power more effectively. As Dutch colonial rule spread through Sumatra in the nineteenth century, administrators encountered a complex system of institutions, customs, and laws known as adat. This article elucidates the processes and consequences of this encounter in Lampung, a region at the southern tip of Sumatra that was finally brought under colonial rule in 1856 after nearly a half-century of intermittent campaigns.
Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Institutions,Conflicts
4
No
151
James, Graham. Crab Bay Community Conserved Area, Vanuatu, South West Pacific. Power point presentation, no citation given
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vanuatu
This presentation describes the strengthening of traditional institutions through a GEF project in Vanuatu as well as some of the issues such as wanting to promote tourism.
Oceania
Traditional Management Systems,Traditional Institutions,GEF
3
Not a formal document but nevertheless useful
No
152
Barguil, Daniela and Maria J. Quesada. Tarcoles: An Artisanal Fishing Community in the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica. Coope SoliDar R.L. Power point presentation, no citation given
Community based management N/a
A photographic journey through the daily lives of the artisanal fishers of Tarcoles.
Latin America
Community Based Management
3
Good photographic documentation
No
153
Faasen, Helena and Scotney Watts. 2007. Local community reaction to the ‘no-take’ policy on fishing in the Tsitsikamma National Park, South Africa. Ecological Economics 64 : 36-46
Documents and Reports
Community based management South Africa
Fishing in the Tsitsikamma National Park has officially been halted since 2001. However, the desire to fish in the Marine Protected Area remains high among the local communities in Tsitsikamma. This has led to illegal fishing practices in the park. Consequently, the reaction of the local communities was measured using semi-structured questionnaires, informal
interactions, personal observations, and through a key informant workshop that was organized in the Tsitsikamma National Park. It was found that responses from local communities to fishing within the park were defined by their residence status, ethnicity, gender, income, and educational level. There is a general understanding by local communities that the purpose of the Tsitsikamma National Park is to conserve nature within its boundaries. However, there is a mismatch in the understanding of the term ‘conservation’ between the local communities and conservation officials of the South African National Parks (SANParks). Local communities consider conservation to include sustainable utilization while conservation officials from the practice pursue absolute protection of the marine fisheries resources. The majority of local communities in Tsitsikamma resent this SANParks ‘no-take’ policy on fishing. They would like access to the fisheries resources in the Tsitsikamma National Park for both subsistence and recreational purposes.
Africa
MPA,Conservation,Conflicts
4
No
154
Onyango, Paul O. and Svein Jentoft. Embedding co-management: Community-based Fisheries Regimes in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Conference Paper 14 citation missing
Documents and Reports
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/23550982_Embedding_co-management_community-based_fisheries_resource_management_regime_in_Lake_Victoria_Tanzania
Community based management N/a
This paper discusses fisheries management reforms through involving local level institutions (LLFI). It is based on studies which were undertaken on Tanzania’s Lake Victoria fishery where LLFIs were established through the formation of Local
enforcement Units, later named Beach Management Units (BMU), between 1998 and 2002. The paper takes the view that the overfishing problems that confront Tanzania’s fisheries management authorities are best understood from a social science perspective. The argument is that most communities’ values and institutions are embedded in their societies. The same is however, not true for externally originated management tools and systems as is the case with BMUs. This paper shows that the BMUs established between 1998 and 2002, were not sufficiently grounded in their socio-cultural environment and this led them to be unsustainable and ineffective. The paper demonstrates that this mismatch by examining the different historical and social contexts in which livelihoods such as fishing emerged and was carried out. These social contexts generated social values that explain the individual behaviour of community members. It is such values that communities always strive to maintain in any activity including fishing. Thus, when confronted with situations that threaten these values, communities strategize or negotiate ways to cope. The coping strategies of two communities riparian to the lake are discussed. The paper therefore proposes a framework for making these units ‘fit’ local conditions in order to make them effective and sustainable so as to reform fisheries management.
Africa
Lake Victoria,Fisheries Management,Co-management,Institutions,Community Based Management
4
No
155
Tweddle, Dennis. 2009. Integrated Management of Zambezi / Chobe River System - Transboundary Fishery Resource, Namibia / Zambia / Botswana. Final Evaluation Report, WWF Namibia.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Namibia
This Evaluation carried out in April-May 2009 was commissioned by WWF in Namibia to assess and review the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of the project. The aims of the project were: Project Goal: The shared Zambezi/Chobe River fisheries resources managed sustainably, and Project Purpose: Alternative community fishery management practices piloted and tested contributing to a fully integrated management system for fisheries that provides optimal benefits to all stakeholders. The project has elucidated the ecology of the fishes and the complexity of the fishery of the Zambezi-Chobe system. The biological research and market surveys have developed an understanding of the subsistence and commercial fisheries of the system. The project is therefore able to provide good management guidelines and the framework for a local adaptive management approach to accommodate the dynamic river-floodplain system. The project has successfully supported the promotion of low-input community-based aquaculture in pans, while more formal, higher-input fish farming has been shown to be impractical and not economically viable in the low-gradient, flood-susceptible Caprivi area. The project has carried out a thorough review of the Fisheries Act and Regulations. Emphasis has been placed on the formation of Community Fisheries Committees. The next step is to assist community fisheries committees and their members to establish local management plans that include fisheries reserves. While the project has succeeding in sensitising the fishing communities, implementing community management plans has not yet been achieved.
Africa
Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Aquaculture
4
No
156
Milley, Chris. First Nation Fisheries Management – Community Governance of Rights-based Fishery.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
The document describes the Mi’kmaq Confederacy of Prince Edward Islands, Canada. A particularly important focus of the efforts of the MCPEI has been the establishment of a Fisheries Directorate to provide technical and advisory support and coordination of the fisheries in the member communities. This work has included establishing local administrative and decision-making structures, Band-level fishery management plans and the design and implementation of Band-level fishery training system that ensures new entrants have the prerequisite skills and knowledge to fish safely and effectively.
N. America
Indigenous Communities,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
4
No
157
Donda, Steve and Friday Njaya. 2007. Fisheries co-management in Malawi: an analysis of the underlying policy process. Worldfish Center.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malawi
This paper reviews the participatory fisheries management policy processes that have taken place in Malawi and proposes some key policy options for sustainable management of Shire river fisheries resource. The overall aim of the policy process is to identify and understand the factors which shape and affect the policy process by documenting and analysing the overall fishery policy environment that characterises the Zambezi basin with specific reference to Lower Shire fishery. This is due to poor performance of national policies with respect to such central issues as economic development and poverty. Consequently, it is likely that the benefits from utilisation of the natural resources will be threatened with overexploitation. This pattern of resource decline, which is common in some water bodies in Malawi such as Lakes Malombe and southern part of Lake Malawi and the Lower Shire River, will lead to competition and conflict between resource users thereby reducing socio-economic conditions and increased poverty. It is important to conduct a policy analysis to generate appropriate information that will be used to review the current fisheries policy processes at national level.
Africa
Lake Fisheries,Fisheries Management,Traditional Management Systems,Co-management,Government
4
A detailed report
No
158
Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DA-BFAR). 2010. Managing Municipal Fisheries in the Philippines: Context, Framework, Concepts and Principles. Fisheries Improved for Sustainable Harvest (FISH) Project, Cebu City, Philippines.
Documents and Reports
http://oneocean.org/download/
Community based management N/a
This Sourcebook contains the context, framework, concepts and principles of municipal fisheries in the Philippines. It looks into the current state of our fisheries, and look back to the past for understanding on how we got here. Fisheries science is explored for clues on why fisheries are the way they are and how they would be in an ideal world. Philippine policy is examined and the case for a change is made in the country’s current exploitation policies and patterns toward more sustainable practices. The social and political landscape are surveyed and the strengthening of fisheries management capacities at all levels of government and society is encouraged. This Sourcebook contains information drawn from past experience in coastal and fisheries resource management in the Philippines, particularly experiences and lessons from the FISH Project and another USAID-supported project, the Coastal Resource Management Project (CRMP) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Additional sources include documents from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (UN-FAO), San Miguel Bay Project (ICLARM [WorldFish Center]), Visayan Sea Project (Deutsche Gesselschaft für Technische Zussamenarbeit [GTZ]), Fishery Sector Program 1 and 2 (Asian Development Bank [ADB]), and Fisheries Resources Management Project (ADB).
Asia
Community Based Management
5
No
159
Baticados, Didi B. 2004. Fishing cooperatives’ participation in managing nearshore resources: the case in Capiz, central Philippines. Fisheries Research 67: 81–91
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
This study documents the resource management initiatives undertaken by fishing cooperatives in Capiz, central Philippines and examines the conditions and the socioeconomic determinants that persuade members to assume responsibility for managing nearshore resources. The results show that in the absence of formal resource management schemes, cooperative members adopt self-management strategies to protect their resource base only if the sustainability of their livelihood is seriously threatened. There is no impediment to female cooperative members (62%) participating in resource management. The factors that positively influenced members’ participation were the number of children, perceived fishery conditions, awareness of mangrove conservation and rehabilitation, and assessment of enforcement of the ban on dynamite and cyanide fishing. Fishing cooperatives, however, fail as a source of information on regulation and conservation education of members. But if they were to undertake more education and training programs on nearshore management, cooperatives may become an effective social force in changing the present fisheries management system.
Asia
Cooperative,Fisheries Management,Fishworker Cooperatives
4
No
160
Satria, Arif, Yoshiaki Matsuda and Masaaki Sano. 2006. Questioning community based coral reef management systems: case study of Awig-Awig in Gili Indah, Indonesia. Environment, Development and Sustainability 8: 99–118
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
Issues and complexities arising when the fisheries and marine tourism sectors have stakes in an institution governing the coral reefs ecosystem called awig-awig are discussed, awig-awig is a colloquialism meaning ‘a local rule’. The community-based management system is commonly recognized as a better approach to governing resources, however, the success of awig-awig in the study area is questionable. Awig-awig fails to deal with the conflict of interest among stakeholders in coastal resource appropriation,
despite the community being relatively culturally homogenous. The benefits of awig-awig are biased in favor of the tourism as opposed to fisheries, leading to the fishers’ resistance of awig-awig. There are critical factors to this weakness: a crisis of legitimacy within community, socio-economic inequality among actors involved in such system, high intervention from external agencies, and the institutional conflict over conservation policy. In addition, awig-awig reduces community spirit as it is perceived as not being attached to any customary law or traditional norms. Group cohesion is challenged and there is no common understanding of the problem or alternatives strategies.
Asia
Tourism,Coral Reefs,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Conflicts
5
No
161
Hidayat, Aceng. 2006. Property Right Changes of Coral Reef Management: From A State Property Regime Towards A Sustainable Local Governance: Lessons from Gili Indah Village, West Lombok, Indonesia. IASCP, Bali.
Documents and Reports
http://www.iascp.org/bali/papers/Hidayat__Aceng.pdf
Community based management Indonesia
This paper is to explain a case of change of property right regime of coral reef management: from an open access to state property and then to local governance, a case study of Gili Indah West Lombok, Indonesia. It demonstrates the reasons of the change, the ineffectiveness of state property regime, and the emergence of local governance where conflicts are assumed as the triggering factors. The study found out that conflict of interest between two main stakeholders: tourism business operators (TBOs) and fishermen drove the change process. The conflicts initially emerged after Balai Konservasi Sumberdaya Alam (BKSDA) as the executor of the state property regimes was unable to protect the coral reef ecosystems from destructive fishing practice. It has also failed in halting Muroami application that has triggered lasting conflicts between TBOs and fishermen. The failure of the state property regime has led TBOs to take over the protection tasks through constructing local governance. So far, the localgovernance has been successful in protecting the coral reef resources and forced the users to use the coral reefs in a sustainable manner. However, it still shows a number of weaknesses in dealing with new challenges such as the non-involvement of several stakeholders in making social agreements and the unequal distribution of authority and responsibility among the actors and stakeholders. Therefore, attempts to find an alternative regime that could address the new challenges of the reef management is still required.
Asia
Coral Reefs,Tourism,Fisheries Management,Conflicts,Property regime
4
No
162
Sophearith, Nom. 2005. Community-based fishery management in Battambang province, Cambodia. Integrated Watershed Management: Studies and Experiences from Asia Edited by Michael Zoebisch, Khin Mar Cho, San Hein & Runia Mowla. AIT, Bangkok.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
Due to heavy exploitation, community fishery has declined in study area - Battambang Province, close to the Tonle Sap Great Lake. Resource-poor farmers practise smallscale fishery throughout the year. The aims of community fishery are: to alleviate poverty and to increase living standards; to
involve people and stakeholders; to reduce conflict between resource-poor farmers and fishing concession owners; and sustainable management of natural resources in the Tonle Sap Lake. The government has also focused on local communities and these local people play a significant role in the integration of resource management and development in the Tonle Sap region. The Cambodian Government has recently initiated community fisheries due to deep concern over fishery-resource degradation under State governance. There is dearth of information on community fishery; even the concepts of community fishery are novel for both local people and local organizations. To enhance involvement and participation, it is essential to understand the physical process of participation as well as social culture, organization, and the economics of local people. This is the purpose of the report.
Asia
Community Based Management,Fisheries Management
4
No
163
Lohmeyer, Uwe. 2003. Back to Basics. Traditional Inland Fisheries Management and Enhancement Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa and their Potential for Development. GTZ.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from poverty and malnutrition. Fisheries, as a major contributor to primary production in Africa, plays a significant role in combating these problems. In contrast to the marine fisheries of sub-Saharan Africa, catches from inland fisheries are still mainly processed and consumed locally. Therefore, inland fisheries are of particular relevance in the context of food security and development. Until now, however, development assistance to inland fisheries in Africa, and in particular to aquaculture, has not met with the same degree of success as it has in Asia and other parts of the world. One of many reasons for these repeated failures has been and still is the frequently observed neglect of social and cultural aspects of inland fisheries and aquaculture on the part of modern African states as well as of development agencies. In recognition of the above, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) commissioned COFAD GmbH to carry out this study, which argues that a better acknowledgement of traditional resource management and enhancement systems is an essential component of a more appropriate and effective approach to inland fisheries and aquaculture development. The study aims to expand our knowledge base of existing traditional fisheries management and enhancement systems and to improve our understanding of the complexities of resource utilisation. To this end, the study presents an outline of traditional fisheries management and traditional fisheries enhancement systems as well as of modern fisheries enhancement and aquaculture systems. After analysing the potentials and constraints of these systems, conclusions are drawn and formulated into recommendations. Key concepts and definitions are explained and individual examples are presented in boxes within the main text. Two case studies, both undertaken in the context of this study, and a bibliography are provided as annexes.
Africa
Inland Fisheries,Community Based Management,Traditional Management Systems,Aquaculture,Sub-saharan Africa
4
No
164
Akyeampong, Emmanuel. Indigenous Knowledge and Maritime Fishing in West Africa: The Case of Ghana. Chapter 16 in Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Sustainable Development: Relevance for Africa. Emmanuel K. Boon and Luc Hens, Editors. Tribes and Tribals, Special Volume No. 1: 173-182 (2007)
Documents and Reports
Community based management Ghana
Colonial rule in Africa privileged Western Knowledge Systems (WKS), discredited Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and provided the context for the fashioning of ‘scientific knowledge’ about Africa. The exigencies of the colonial political economy determined priorities in the creation of scientific knowledge about the African environment; hence reports abounded on mining, forestry, and farming. Fishing was a latecomer in colonial economic considerations, and this neglect was inherited by post-colonial African governments. This paper examines the vibrant maritime fishing industry that developed along the West African coast, in spite of the absence of initial colonial support, and the production of a veritable ‘citizen science’, where fishing was concerned. The fishing industry has come under close international and national regulation in the last decade or two with recommendations to diversify from the fisheries sector and to promote fish farming as an alternative to freshwater and marine fisheries. This paper explores the transferability of indigenous knowledge to this new sphere and highlights the need to privilege the concerns and needs of fishing communities, as fishing is more a way of life than just a livelihood. It advocates aligning community, national and international interests and concerns in developmental agendas.
Africa
Fisheries Management,Indigenous Knowledge,Traditional based management system
4
No
165
Aciro Olyel, Daisy. 2006. Right tool, Wrong Target? Co-management in the Ugandan Fishery Sector. Masters’ Thesis. University of Tromso.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Uganda
This thesis examines the effectiveness of the co-management approach in the fishery management system of Uganda with specific case reference to the implementation of the Beach Management Units (BMU), an institutional structure for the co-management approach, in the Lake Kyoga and Lake Victoria fishing villages. The theoretical frame work of this thesis involves looking at the concept of co-management, the theory of implementation and a study of the concept of situated knowledge production processes. On the other hand, the empirical assignment consisted of following the processes that led to the implementation of the BMU system and examining the achieved goals so far. The analytical studies are to weigh the achieved goals of the implementation of the BMU system with the desired or theorised goals of the co-management concept. This is done with specific interest in outcomes related to social equity among the BMU members and the issues with the fisheries resource sustainability. The analysis is done using the sustainable livelihood approach and the institutional analysis frame work. The challenges involved in the implementation process are also highlighted and put into consideration in this analysis. At the same time, discussions in the analysis touch on issues of development knowledge production for the developing worlds with special regards to when such “knowledges” are turned into uniform policies. This discussion, with regard to knowledge production is to ascertain whether such knowledge production systems either heal or escalate the damaged situations in such regions when they are turned into policies. This thesis argues that the knowledge base of fisheries management like other development knowledge is generated from outside the culture of the society to which such knowledges are later implemented. In this way, the expected results of such are always in contrary to what is expected.
Africa
Community Based Management,Co-management,Fisheries Management,Beach management unit,BMU
4
No
166
Madagascar’s first community-run, self-sustaining Marine Protected Area.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Madagascar
A unique partnership between the local community, local and international NGOs and institutions aiming to show the economic, conservation and fisheries benefits of Madagascar’s first community run experimental Marine Protected Area (MPA). In June 2003 a collaborative venture was launched in Andavadoaka between Blue Ventures Conservation and the IHSM, Madagascar’s national marine research institute, in response to the need to develop a better understanding of the area’s unique marine and coastal habitats. This collaboration quickly expanded to include a range of additional partners, both within and outside the village. Through the implementation of Madagascar’s first experimental community-run Marine Protected Area (MPA), the partnership is working to develop management solutions to help sustain the traditional artisanal fishing economy as well as to minimise the environmental impacts Andavadoakan of human activities on the region’s marine and coastal environments.
Africa
Community Based Management,MPA,LMMPA,Artisanal Fisheries
4
I think there is another paper with almost same content
No
167
Pollnac, Richard B, Brian R. 2001. Crawford and Maharlina L.G. Gorospe. Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management 44 683–710
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
Community-based marine protected areas have become a popular coastal resources management method advocated in many projects and programs. While many case studies have
been written about factors contributing to project success, few empirical studies using quantitative methods have been employed. A study was conducted of 45 community-based marine protected areas in Philippines. Several success measures were developed and analyzed in relation to a number of independent variables categorized as contextual or project intervention factors. Correlations between individual factors and the dependent variables are discussed. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the most important predictors of success. These included: population size of the community, a perceived crisis in terms of reduced fish populations, successful alternative income projects, high levels of participation in community decision making, continuing advice from the implementing organization and inputs from local government. The implications of these results for policy makers and project managers are discussed.
Asia
LMMPA,MPA,Community Based Management
4
Mathematical correlation attempts
No
168
Neuhaus, E. 2003. Community based tourism experiences in Ceara, Northeast of Brazil. Working Paper. Instituto Terramar, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
Tourism has long provided economic benefits – jobs and income – for national and local economies. Especially in developing countries, tourism has the potential to generate employment and income and to improve the quality of life of local people in the destination areas, but in reality just the opposite happens: social and spatial segregation, loss of land tenure, concentration of wealth and income and other undesirable social, cultural and environmental impacts. This is the case of some places on the coast of Ceara and many other places around the world. But, fortunately, there are exceptions, places with community based tourism projects. Community tourism seeks to ensure that impacts are positive ones and provide economic benefits to local communities, values local culture and diversity and protects the environment. Tourism can thus provide a lasting benefit to local communities. Ultimately, responsible tourism is about the mutual benefit for local people and visitors. Community based tourism contributes to conservation of biodiversity, sustains the well being of local people, provides a learning experience to the visitor and stresses local participation, empowerment, ownership and business opportunities for the population.
Latin America
Ecotourism,Community Based Management
4
No
169
McConney. P. 2003.. Grenada Case Study: Legalisation of Beach Seine. Traditional Rules at Gouyave. Caribbean coastal co-management guidelines project.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Grenada
Traditional fishery rules are poorly documented in the eastern Caribbean. An outstanding exception is the work of James Finlay, the recently retired head of the fisheries authority in Grenada. His thoroughly documented research and industry consultations on the beach seine rules in Grenada have lead to them being recommended for legalisation. This case researched how fisheries stakeholders and the government may approach this in the case of Gouyave, a west coast town known as the fishing capital of Grenada, where beach seining for coastal pelagics and small-scale longlining for tunas are very interactive fisheries. A variety of conflicts have arisen out of these interactions. Although the recommendation to reduce conflict through legislation has been made, and seems
to be agreed with by the fishing industry based on previous consultations, it is not clear if or how the process will proceed. A critical factor is the extent to which legislation will allow local level interpretation and development of the rules to continue. Caribbean fisheries legislation is not known for its flexibility and scope for adaptation. This community-based control is likely to be feasible only if the fishery stakeholders in Gouyave desire this level of power and responsibility. The findings concerning the interaction between nets and boats in the bay, and the legalisation of the traditional rules, are consistent in showing that the fishers have no interest in, or capacity for, taking on the responsibility of managing the fishery without considerable support and direction from government. The fishers have concluded that there is no respect for rules formulated through community structures and processes. This lack of respect and the ineffectiveness of social sanctions is said to be strongest among the younger generation of fishers. This young generation is also prominent in the operation s of the longline fishery with which the fortunes of the beach seine fishery are intertwined.
Latin America
Caribbean,Community Based Management,Traditional Management Systems,Traditional Fisheries
4
No
170
Fetherston, Elizabeth H. 2005. Sustainability Certification In Community-Based Fisheries. Masters project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Environmental Management degree in The Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences of Duke University.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
Mismanagement of global fisheries resources has an overwhelmingly negative effect on the survival of community-based fisheries. In developing countries, community based fishing is a socially as well as economically valuable activity providing much needed employment and income in areas where there are few alternatives for either. In order to promote sustainability in these areas, the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) are attempting to apply their sustainable seafood ecolabeling program to community-based fisheries. The MSC and WWF examined ten community-based fisheries in 2000, including Prainha do Canto Verde, a fishing village in northeastern Brazil. Though the community harvested lobster in a sustainable manner, the larger fishery did not. The national lobster fishery in Brazil covers over 150,000 square kilometers and is characterized by illegal, unsustainable fishing practices and poor enforcement. As a result, the lobster stock remains in serious decline and faces the possibility of collapse. This failing stock health prevented the MSC from considering Prainha do Canto Verde for sustainability certification. Under the MSC, a sustainable product can never come from an unsustainable fishery, despite pockets of good management and environmentally responsible practices. Currently, the MSC is powerless to promote sustainable practices in community based fisheries because the criteria relate directly to the sustainability of the product. By certifying small-scale communities that harvest sustainably within an admittedly unsustainable system, economic incentives for other communities to change their behaviour could develop, to the benefit of the larger fishery. Recognizing the constraints inherent in the MSC, this project proposes alternative approaches to promoting the welfare of communities and the sustainability of their fisheries.
Latin America
Lobster,Community Based Management,MSC,Sustainable Fisheries
4
No
171
Bender, Andrea. Sharing Fishing Grounds and Sharing Food – how a cultural institution helps to protect an open access resource. No citation available
Documents and Reports
Community based management Tonga
A long tradition of research has proven that common property resources may be protected by a ‘firewall’ of regulations. Open access resources, however, seem to be doomed for certain due to their lack of institutions. What happens in between? Can resources be handled in a sustainable manner if a user community maintains cultural institutions which influence only the resource distribution while at the same time access to the resource itself is not restricted? An island community in the Ha‘apai-Group of Tonga has been chosen to illustrate the principle. In Tonga, unlike other Pacific countries, everybody has free access to all marine resources. With a gradual transition from subsistence to more commercial fishery, non cooperative strategies of resource use are generally arising now as opportunities to sell fish redirect aims towards gain-maximizing. Thus, on the one hand, such non-cooperative strategies are expected to culminate in resource depletion. On the other hand, cooperation (fetokoni‘aki) has always been a highly cherished value in the traditional culture, and the institution of foodsharing has been particularly strong among community members (including fishermen) due to a tight social net. Therefore, villages still can be found where the cultural institution of foodsharing enhances cooperativeness and sustainable resource use. The case study took place in Lofanga. Although they have the same opportunities and economic incentives as the commercial fishermen in neighboring ‘Uiha, the vast majority of fishermen in Lofanga still harvests on a subsistence basis. The few commercial fishermen hold special positions within the village structure as well as within the social net and try to maintain or improve their position by complying with the sharing rule to an above average degree. Giving all their neighbors access to their yield legitimizes their efforts while at the same time it reduces the efforts of other community members. Nevertheless, these open access resources are threatened by commercial fishermen from neighboring islands. Some of these have even started to over-exploit their own resources and to compete with other villages for their fishing grounds. It seems plausible that in order to enable traditional institutions in Tonga to work more efficiently, the open access nature of marine resources should be changed to community-based management.
Oceania
Marine resource Management,open access,Open access regime,Community Based Management
4
No
172
Satria, Arif. Sawen. 2006- Institution, local knowledge and myth in fisheries management in North Lombok, Indonesia. Chapter 10, pp 197-208 in Fishers’ Knowledge in Fisheries Science and Management, UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-104029-0 -
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
Sawen is a traditional resource management institution that originally integrated the management of forests, the sea and farmland using cognitive aspects (local knowledge and resource management principles), regulatory aspects (codes of conduct) and normative aspects (world views and belief systems). Sawen in North Lombok, Indonesia, was almost eradicated early in the Suharto regime, following an alleged coup attempt by the Indonesian Communist Party in the mid-1960s. The Indonesian reform movement of 1998 brought empowerment to many local communities in the archipelago and made it possible to attempt to revitalize sawen for fisheries management in North Lombok. The initiative came from the community and is compatible with the current government recent reform agenda in devolving power to local authority. This chapter analyses the cause and effect of the cessation of sawen practices in marine resource management, and the recent attempt to revitalize it in Kayangan, a small coastal community in North Lombok. Preliminary findings suggest that revitalized sawen for marine resources was able to assist the local community in addressing issues of overexploitation, access rights and lack of enforcement of fishing regulations in their nearshore waters. More importantly, the revitalization of sawen has:
• restored the marine cultural identity of the community, which had ceased to exist over the three decades of the Suharto regime
• provided a ‘protection institution’ for small-scale fishers
• provided insights (local knowledge and wisdom) for implementation of local fisheries management
• created a legitimate institution of community-based fisheries management in the study area.
Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Community Based Management,Traditional Knowledge
5
Sasi has been featured but sawen has not so far been featured in any paper
No
173
Johannes, R.E. The case for data-less marine resource management: examples from tropical nearshore finfisheries. TREE 13 (1998):243-246
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
Managing most marine finfisheries to achieve optimum yields is an unattainable dream. Protecting these resources from serious depletion through precautionary management seems the only practical option. But even this is of limited application if we demand scientific data for each managed fishery. There are too few researchers to do the work and, in any event, such research would usually not be cost-effective. Thus, we need not merely precautionary management; we need data-less management.
Oceania
Fisheries Management,Precautionary principle,Data
5
On management in tropical fisheries – esp without data
No
174
Alcala, Angel C. and Garry R. Russ. No-take Marine Reserves and Reef Fisheries Management in the Philippines: A New People Power Revolution. Ambio 35 2006:245-254
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
The marine-conservation and reef fisheries–management program that exists today in the Philippines had humble beginnings in the 1970s at Sumilon and Apo islands. These islands have produced some of the best evidence available that no-take reserves, protected and managed by local communities, can play a key role in biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Perhaps more importantly, they served as models for an extraordinary expansion of no-take reserves nationally in the Philippines in the past 2 decades. This expansion contributed substantially to a major shift in national policy of management of marine resources. This policy shift partially devolved responsibility from a centralized government bureaucracy to local governments and local communities. Local governments now comanage, along with the national government, marine resources out to 15 km from the coast. Giving some responsibility for management of marine resources to coastal people dependent upon those resources represents, in a very real sense, another ‘‘people power revolution’’ in the Philippines.
Asia
Community Based Management,No-take Zones,LMMPA
4
No
175
Sultana, P., P.M. Thompson and M. Ahmed. 2002. Women-led Fisheries Management – A Case Study from Bangladesh..
Documents and Reports
Women and Resources Management,Community based management Bangladesh
Although women constitute 50% of the total population of Bangladesh, only 18% are economically involved in the total labor force. They are involved in diversified work within their homesteads. However, during times of family needs and economic crisis, women are involved in non-traditional jobs. In the fisheries sector, Muslim women are traditionally not involved in fishing but they are involved in fish drying and salting. In the Hindu dominated areas such as Goakhola-Hatiara, women are involved in fish catch as well as the collection of other aquatic resources as one of their livelihood strategies. Women and subsistence fishers are taking the lead in managing a common capture fishery resource in Goakhola-Hatiara with the support from an NGO for perhaps the first time in Bangladesh. However, the role of women in the Beel Management Committee is not well defined. Under the leadership of women the socio-economic conditions have changed and the social capital has increased.
Asia
Women,Community Based Management
4
One of the few women-focused papers
No
176
Techera, Erika J. 2009. Customary Law and Community-Based Fisheries Management across the South Pacific Region. Journal of the Australasian Law Teachers Association (2):279-292.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Fiji
In many islands of the South Pacific there is evidence of positive conservation outcomes founded upon community-based environmental management (CBEM) of marine biodiversity. But community based initiatives need to be supported by legal frameworks to facilitate and strengthen them as well as to address specific issues of legitimacy and enforcement. While recognising the need for a legal framework, there is little guidance available to the law and policy-makers who are charged with drafting effective laws to facilitate marine governance. This paper considers the legal frameworks that support CBEM in the region and, in particular, the role of customary law. The experiences of the Fiji Islands, Samoa and Vanuatu are investigated here as they may be of assistance to other SIDS seeking to establish similar cross-cultural environmental law regimes.
Oceania
Samoa,Vanuatu,Community Based Management,Traditional based management system,South Africa
4
No
177
Cordell, John. 2007. A Sea of Dreams: Valuing Culture in Marine Conservation. The Ethnographic Institute, Berkeley, CA 94707.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
In this paper the author assesses the status of culture in marine management, particularly in emerging marine protected area (MPA) frameworks and discourse. A sense of the breadth, direction, and potential of work in this area can be provided by analyzing experiences in two tropical coastal regions which geopolitically and in terms of culture history are far removed from one another: N.E. Brazil and N. Australia / W. Oceania.
Oceania,Latin America
Tenure and Use,MPA,Melanesia,Indigenous Communities,Community Based Management
4
No
178
Cordell, John. 2000. Remapping the waters: The significance of sea tenure-based protected areas. Third Conference on Property Rights, Economics, and Environment: Marine Resources International Center for Research on Environmental Issues Universite d’Aix-Marseille III, Aix-en-Provence, Franc.
Documents and Reports
Community based management South Pacific Islands
In this paper, the author talks about sea tenure using illustrative studies and recent conservation project reports
to make the case for why more clearly defined property rights, in general, and sea tenure practices, in particular, have a critical role to play in designing and managing marine protected areas; and why the persistence of sea tenure-based fishing, though sometimes interpreted as a liability in the international crusade to inventory and save biodiversity, with more support from conservation groups and management agencies could be converted to a key asset.
Oceania
Property rights,MPA,Marine tenure,Customary Tenure
4
No
179
Cordell, John. 2000. Remapping the waters: The significance of sea tenure-based protected areas. Third Conference on Property Rights, Economics, and Environment: Marine Resources International Center for Research on Environmental Issues Universite d’Aix-Marseille III, Aix-en-Provence, Franc.
Documents and Reports
Community based management South Pacific Islands
In this paper, the author talks about sea tenure using illustrative studies and recent conservation project reports
to make the case for why more clearly defined property rights, in general, and sea tenure practices, in particular, have a critical role to play in designing and managing marine protected areas; and why the persistence of sea tenure-based fishing, though sometimes interpreted as a liability in the international crusade to inventory and save biodiversity, with more support from conservation groups and management agencies could be converted to a key asset.
Oceania
Property rights,MPA,Marine tenure,Customary Tenure
4
No
180
Cordell, John. 2000. Remapping the waters: The significance of sea tenure-based protected areas. Third Conference on Property Rights, Economics, and Environment: Marine Resources International Center for Research on Environmental Issues Universite d’Aix-Marseille III, Aix-en-Provence, Franc.
Documents and Reports
Community based management South Pacific Islands
In this paper, the author talks about sea tenure using illustrative studies and recent conservation project reports
to make the case for why more clearly defined property rights, in general, and sea tenure practices, in particular, have a critical role to play in designing and managing marine protected areas; and why the persistence of sea tenure-based fishing, though sometimes interpreted as a liability in the international crusade to inventory and save biodiversity, with more support from conservation groups and management agencies could be converted to a key asset.
Oceania
Property rights,MPA,Marine tenure,Customary Tenure
4
No
181
Diegues, A.C. (Ed.) 2005.Maritime Anthropology in Brazil. Center for Research on Human Population and Wetlands in Brazil – USP, Sao Paulo.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
In the last decades, coastal issues have become a matter of concern both for academics and development practitioners. During this period the Brazilian coast and adjacent waters, even in remote areas of the Northeast and of suffered from increasing pollution and degradation, due to a rapid industrialization, urbanization, deforestation and over fishing. Coastal communities, particularly those of artisanal fishermen, that were geographically and socially isolated in the past, also became important social actors in this process. In most cases, the beaches where they lived were expropriated by land speculators, for sale to tourists. In the mid 1970's, some of these communities and small-scale fishermen organizations started reacting against land expropriation and over fishing by industrial fishing boats that threatened their livelihood. At the same time, increasing pollution of the rivers and estuaries, particularly in the Northeast threatened important ecosystems on which artisanal fishermen depend for their livelihood. Later, this social reaction was backed by progressive sectors of the Catholic Church and Unions, during the period of re-democratization of the country, following twenty years of military dictatorship. In some regions, these fishermen obtained a high social visibility and were able to create new democratic institutions to counteract those controlled by local oligarchies.
This process generated a growing interest by researchers to analyse these complex changes. It became clear that the methodology used by the social sciences to study social processes in rural areas was not appropriate to tackle the changing ecological and social relationships between society and the marine environment. Some of these researchers, particularly anthropologists, started claiming the need to establish a new and specific field or sub-discipline within Social Anthropology to deal with the complex relationships between man and marine ecosystems, called Marine Socio-Anthropology. This Reader is an attempt to give an overall and interdisciplinary view of the research in different fields of the social sciences undertaken by several Brazilian universities aiming to analyse the processes of social change in coastal communities, particularly those of artisanal fishermen. It is a result of papers presented at a series of national workshops called "Social Sciences and the Sea", organized by NUPAUB-Research Center on Human Population and Wetlands, of the University of São Paulo, from 1988 to 1991.
Latin America
Artisanal Fisheries,Traditional Knowledge,Indigenous Knowledge,Tenure and Use,Fisheries Management
4
No
182
Kishore, Rosemarie and Himawatee. Ramsundar. Community-Based Fisheries Management: A Case Study of Fishing Communities from Ortoire to Guayaguayare, Trinidad. 59th Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, Belize City: Belize. 59: 99 – 110.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Trinidad and Tobago
This research focuses on the development of community-based fisheries management in fishing communities from Ortoire to Guayaguayare, Trinidad and examines factors such as the nature of the fishery, the socio-cultural environment, and the development of community organisations which are intrinsic to this community-based approach. Research methodology included the use of face-to-face interviews guided by questionnaires to capture information on fishing operations, fisher households, and a perception and attitude survey on resource conditions and fisheries management issues. Other research techniques included the use of key informants, focus group meetings, and cognitive mapping of fishing grounds and fish resources. The shared fishing areas, similar fishing methods and seasonal nature of the artisanal fishery facilitate a migration of boats and fishers across the seven fishing landing sites. This migration and the kinship among the fishers contribute to strong social cohesion, which supports the concept of a single fishing community. The formation of two fishing associations, and the fishers’ ability to negotiate on their own behalf with other resource users, allow for these fishing communities to engage in a participatory approach with government, research institutions and other resource users in developing a framework for managing the local fishing industry from Ortoire to Guayaguayare.
N. America
Artisanal Fisheries,Community Based Management
4
No
183
Scholz, Uwe and Sloans Chimatiro. 2004.. Malawi. Institutionalizing Traditional Community based Natural Resource Management. IK Notes, No. 64.
Documents and Reports
http://www.worldbank.org/afr/ik/default
Community based management Malawi
Fisheries management in Malawi has evolved from a traditional system to a centralized regime, followed by the recently introduced co-management fisheries systems. During colonial rule, and through later regimes, a centralized managed system was in place. As in many other countries, these centralized regimes experienced a number of difficulties. These centralized regimes often obliterated traditional leadership values in favour of state authority. The decline of fish catches led to the implementation of a new fisheries management strategy by the Department of Fisheries (DOF), carried out with assistance from the Federal Republic of Germany, through the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). The strategy included a decentralized, participatory management approach to replace the centralized management style, which had failed to enforce regulations, in particular the increased use of destructive fishing gear like shore and open water seine nets, often operated with mosquito netting. The decentralization of decision-making to the fisherfolk in Malawi coincided with the shift in Malawi’s politics in 1994 from an autocratic one-party state to a multiparty democracy. In the same year, the pilot measures of a community- based fisheries management program were implemented through a project known today as the National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP). This is discussed in the paper.
Africa
Community Based Management,Traditional based management system,Decentralisation
4
No
184
McCay, Bonnie J. 1980. A Fishermen's Cooperative, Limited: Indigenous Resource Management in a Complex Society. Anthropological Quarterly, Special Issue: Maritime Anthropology, 53 : 29-38
Documents and Reports
Community based management United States
This paper discusses certain aspects of a fishermen's cooperative of the New York Bight region of the Middle Atlantic coast. Emphasized are the ways in which the cooperative functions as a vehicle of indigenous fisheries management, as part of its larger function of helping its members cope with environmental uncertainty.
N. America
Community Based Management,Cooperative,Fisheries Management,Quota
5
A good example of modern day cooperative/CBM
No
185
McGoodwin, James Russell. 1980. Mexico's Marginal Inshore Pacific Fishing Cooperatives. Anthropological Quarterly, Special Issue: Maritime Anthropology, 53 : 39-57
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
Following their establishment by the central government in 1933, Mexico's inshore Pacific fishing cooperatives enjoyed great prosperity. Today, however, they are marginal entities, and many are failing. The inshore cooperatives of south Sinaloa state are examined as a case in point. Their decline was brought about by a multiplicity of factors-corruption, counter-productive technological innovations, natural catastrophe-and especially by an underlying structural flaw in their organization: as State-instituted and controlled entities, they are not autonomous. Thus, as the central government developed economically more viable offshore shrimp producing cooperatives, the inshore cooperatives were unable to respond competitively, and declined.
Latin America
Fisheries Management,Cooperative
4
No
186
Soeftestad, L.T. 2004. Coastal and Marine Resources in the Caribbean: Local co-management and regional knowledge management. CBNRM Net Papers, No. 4, November.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Caribbean
Co-management of coastal and marine resources in the Caribbean appears advanced in contrast with other regions. This makes a comparative study of the causes and special characteristics of the region interesting. This is done first by reviewing local level community based coastal resource management project in select locations in the Caribbean and elsewhere in the world and second, by discussing these from the macro level point of view of knowledge management. Assessment of local management practices is done from the point of view of community based natural resource management (CBNRM) understood as management of natural resources using a detailed plan developed and agreed to by all concerned stakeholders. The approach is community based in that the communities managing the resources have the legal rights, the local institutions, and the economic incentives to take substantial responsibility for sustained use of these resources. Under the natural resource management plan, communities become the primary implementers, assisted and monitored by technical and other services located in the public sector.
Asia
Community Based Management,Co-management
4
No
187
Michael King & Ueta Faasili. 1999. A network of small, community-owned Village Fish Reserves in Samoa. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #11 – pp2-6
Documents and Reports
Community based management American Samoa
Under a community-based fisheries extension programme in Samoa, 44 coastal villages have developed their own Village Fisheries Management Plans. Each plan sets out the resource management and conservation undertakings of the community, and the servicing and technical support required from the government Fisheries Division. Community undertakings ranged from enforcing laws banning destructive fishing methods to protecting critical habitats such as mangrove areas. An unexpectedly large number of villages (38) chose to establish small Village Fish Reserves in part of their traditional fishing areas. Although by social necessity many of the community-owned reserves are small, their large number, often with small separating distances, forms a network of fish refuges. Such a network may maximise linking of larval sources and suitable settlement areas and provide the means by which adjacent fishing areas are eventually replenished with marine species through reproduction and migration. As the Fish Reserves are being managed by communities which have a direct interest in their continuation and success, prospects for continuing compliance and commitment appear high. Results confirm our belief that the responsible management of marine resources will be achieved only when fishing communities themselves accept it as their responsibility.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Marine Reserves,Fisheries Management
4
No
188
McDaniel, Josh. Communal fisheries management in the Peruvian Amazon. 1997. Human Organization; Summer 56: 147-152
Documents and Reports
Community based management Australia
Community-level management of lake fisheries is becoming an increasingly viable alternative in many areas of Amazonia. Population growth and increased commercial fishing have led to intense competition and conflict over fishery resources. Conservation can only be successful in these competitive environments when resource management is adapted to solving problems at the local level. This study examines the communal management of lake fisheries in Chino, a community on the Tahuayo river south of Iquitos in the Northeastern Peruvian Amazon. The history and organization of the management system is presented with an analysis of the relation between fishing efficiency and specific tenets of the management system.
Latin America
Traditional Management Systems,Lake Fisheries,Community Based Management
4
No
189
Copes, Parzival and Anthony Charles. 2004. Socioeconomics of Individual Transferable Quotas and Community Based Fishery Management. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 33 : 171-181
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
In many fisheries around the world, the failures of centralized, top-down management have produced a shift toward co-management-collaboration and sharing of decision making between government and stakeholders. This trend has led to a major debate between two very different co-management approaches- community based fishery management and market-based individual transferable quota
Management. This paper examines the debate over the relative merits of these models and undertakes a socioeconomic analysis of the two approaches. The paper includes (I) an analysis of differences in the structure, philosophical nature, and underlying value systems of each, including a discussion of their treatment of property rights; (2) a socioeconomic evaluation of the impacts of each system on boat owners, fishers, crewmembers, other fishery participants, and coastal communities, as well as the distribution of benefits and costs among fishery participants; and (3) examination of indirect economic effects that can occur through impacts on conservation and fishery sustainability. The latter relate to (a) the conservation ethic, (b) the flexibility of management, (c) the avoidance: of waste, and (d) the efficiency of enforcement. The paper emphasises the need for a broader approach to analyzing fishery management options, one that recognizes and properly assesses the diversity of choices, and that takes into account the interaction of the fishery with broader community and regional realities.
N. America
ITQ,Community Based Management,Fisheries Management
5
No
190
Nunan, Fiona. 2006. Empowerment and Institutions: Managing Fisheries in Uganda. World Development 34: 1316–1332
Documents and Reports
Community based management Uganda
The perception of communities as homogeneous and concern over representation and accountability of structures are key critiques of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). A focus on understanding institutions that mediate access to, and control over, natural resources is seen as a way forward to improving management regimes that include local people. Experience in the implementation of integrated lake management in Uganda is drawn on to understand how institutions can be challenged to improve access to fisheries for marginalized stakeholders. Processes such as empowerment and the formation of accountable and representative structures are part of the way forward.
Africa
Community Based Management,Institutions,Empowerment,Stakeholders,Fisheries Management
4
No
191
Weinstein, Martin S. 2000. Pieces of the Puzzle: Solutions for Community-Based Fisheries Management from Native Canadians, Japanese Cooperatives, and Common Property Researchers. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review12 : 375-412
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
The author looks at community based management as practiced by the indigenous peoples of Canada and the modern day management regimes; and the historical management systems in Japan in contrast to the current management methods. This article's objective, the author says, was to present some pieces for solving the puzzle of community-based fisheries management. There are two possibilities for understanding these pieces. The first is that the pieces create a story in and of themselves. The second is that the pieces are more than the sum of their parts. With the first possibility, the pieces may actually be linked as part of a story in their own right. Community-based management is nothing new in Canada or elsewhere in the Americas. It becomes a novelty only if the millennia of history are ignored by re-constructing the story as the history of European settlement. In making changes to resource use and management, the Canadian government followed European traditions. The scale of access and management followed the political map rather than the biology of the resources, and the lessons learned by aboriginal societies were simply discounted. The resource management knowledge and creativity of these societies must be honored rather than ignored.
N. America,Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Indigenous Communities,Community Based Management
5
No
192
Milley, Chris. First Nation Fisheries Management – Community Governance of Rights-based Fishery.
Documents and Reports
http://muscongusbay.org/soundings/milley.pdf
Community based management Canada
The document describes the Mi’kmaq Confederacy of Prince Edward Islands, Canada. A particularly important focus of the efforts of the MCPEI has been the establishment of a Fisheries Directorate to provide technical and advisory support and coordination of the fisheries in the member communities. This work has included establishing local administrative and decision-making structures, Band-level fishery management plans and the design and implementation of Band-level fishery training system that ensures new entrants have the prerequisite skills and knowledge to fish safely and effectively.
N. America
Indigenous Communities,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
4
No
193
Akyeampong, Emmanuel. 2007. Indigenous Knowledge and Maritime Fishing in West Africa: The Case of Ghana. Chapter 16 in Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Sustainable Development: Relevance for Africa. Emmanuel K. Boon and Luc Hens, Editors. Tribes and Tribals, Special Volume No. 1: 173-182.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Ghana
Colonial rule in Africa privileged Western Knowledge Systems (WKS), discredited Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and provided the context for the fashioning of ‘scientific knowledge’ about Africa. The exigencies of the colonial political economy determined priorities in the creation of scientific knowledge about the African environment; hence reports abounded on mining, forestry, and farming. Fishing was a latecomer in colonial economic considerations, and this neglect was inherited by post-colonial African governments. This paper examines the vibrant maritime fishing industry that developed along the West African coast, in spite of the absence of initial colonial support, and the production of a veritable ‘citizen science’, where fishing was concerned. The fishing industry has come under close international and national regulation in the last decade or two with recommendations to diversify from the fisheries sector and to promote fish farming as an alternative to freshwater and marine fisheries. This paper explores the transferability of indigenous knowledge to this new sphere and highlights the need to privilege the concerns and needs of fishing communities, as fishing is more a way of life than just a livelihood. It advocates aligning community, national and international interests and concerns in developmental agendas.
Africa
Fisheries Management,Indigenous Knowledge,Traditional Management Systems
4
No
194
Jentoft, Svein and Bonnie McCay. 1995. User participation in fisheries management. Marine Policy, 19 : 227-246.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
This paper summarizes the findings of two partly overlapping comparative international projects on government industry interaction in fisheries management in the seven Nordic countries, the USA, Canada, Spain, France and New Zealand. The case studies are summarized on a country-by-country basis represent various 'steps' on the ladder of user participation in fisheries management. The case studies demonstrate that institutions of government-industry cooperation are commonplace within fisheries nations of the Western hemisphere and that user participation is an integral part of a country's fisheries management regime. Not only were they strongly involved when these regimes were established, but user groups also exercise great influence on how they work in practice. Management councils, boards, committees, or whatever they are called, make the decision-making process more open, less hierarchical and more decentralized than would otherwise be the case. They provide a two-way channel for communication of information and knowledge between industry and government. They are a means of producing support and of sharing responsibility for hard decisions that inevitable pose a challenge to every management system. The general picture seems to be that European fishermen are less fragmented organizationally than their North American counterparts. The better fishermen are organized, the stronger their position. In general, a mixture of institutions with a varying degree of user involvement and responsibility are seen. Despite great differences from country to country, there is a common denominator: they all present a cooperative approach to fisheries management. Decision making is not entirely a government affair but a responsibility and a process that also involves user groups.
N. America,Europe,Australia/Oceania
Participatory Management,Community Based Management,Co-management
3
No
195
Schafer, Adalberto Gularte and Enir Girondi Reis. 2008. Artisanal fishing areas and traditional ecological knowledge: The case study of the artisanal fisheries of the Patos Lagoon estuary (Brazil). Marine Policy, 32: 283–292 doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.06.001
Traditional Knowledge Brazil
This study presents the geographical and nominal identification of the fishing areas of the artisanal fishery of the Patos Lagoon estuary (Brazil) as known by local fishermen. One hundred and twenty-four fishing areas were identified and georeferenced according to fishermen’s traditional ecological knowledge. The identification and mapping of the fishing areas as traditionally known and exploited by fishermen was based on participative mapping techniques (PRA, RRA). Nearly 80% of the designations of the fishing areas were known by fishermen only and are registered for the first time. Fishermen identify fishing areas according to depth, wooden logs used to anchor fixed nets, gradation of water transparency, and traditional use of certain areas. This study reveals the richness of knowledge held by fishermen, it illustrates their solid straight relationship with the natural environment where they live, and shows the potential uses of TEK for fisheries management. Fishermen identify fishing areas using four individual factors or a combination of them. These are: (a) areas with different depths that are grouped in three categories: those less than 1m deep are known as ‘‘croas’’, the places up to 5m deep are called ‘‘sacos’’, and places deeper than 5m are named as ‘‘canais’’ or ‘‘canaletes’’; (b) the existence of wooden logs vertically fixed in the bottom of the lagoon that are used to anchor fixed nets; (c) different gradation of water transparency; (d) the frequent (traditional) use of certain areas. The precise location of the fishing areas and their relationship with other data on fishing activity such as total catch, type of fishing gear used, type of boats, among others, can supply adequate yield models and scenarios that will predict catch strategies and help the maintenance of the fishing stocks. These data are also important when studying fish population dynamics, especially when assessing reproduction and nursery areas, which may eventually be the focus of protection.
Latin America
Traditional Knowledge,Indigenous Knowledge,Estuaries,Artisanal Fisheries
4
No
196
Maliao, Ronald J., Robert S. Pomeroy and Ralph G. Turingan. 2009. Performance of community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) programs in the Philippines: A meta-analysis. Marine Policy, 33: 818–825 doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2009.03.003
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
Community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) is a major conservation and fisheries management strategy in the tropics. In this study, the performance of 16 CBCRM programs in the Philippines was assessed using a meta-analysis of eight indicators that represented the perceptions of local resource users. In the Philippines, a major component of the CBCRM program is the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). All studies included in the meta-analyses used the fisheries co- management research framework developed by the Worldwide Collaborative Research Project on Fisheries Co-management (WCRPFC). Overall, the CBCRM programs in the Philippines were perceived to have a significant positive impact. However, the performance of each of the indicators was mixed. Although the CBCRM programs were perceived to be effective in empowering the local fishing communities, their perceived impact on improving the state of the local fisheries resources remained limited. This highlights the importance of incorporating ecological and socio-economic considerations in setting fisheries management regimes. The study also concludes that the limited fisheries impact of CBCRM, through its MPA component, should not be taken as evidence against the implementation of MPAs in the Philippines and elsewhere.
Asia
MPA,Community Based Management,Adaptive management
4
No
197
Rab, Md A. 2009. River fisheries management in Bangladesh: Drawing lessons from Community Based Fisheries Management (CBFM) experiences. Ocean & Coastal Management 52 : 533–538 doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.08.001
Documents and Reports
Community based management Bangladesh
River fisheries in Bangladesh is characterized as ‘‘open-access’’ and the history of administrative and legislative measures bear ‘‘contradiction and dilemmas’’ in resource extraction. Because of the persistent dilemma in government policy, continued increase in fishing pressure and other anthropogenic reasons, the River resources degraded substantially. Over the past ten years, the Department of Fisheries (DOF) in collaboration with NGOs implemented community based fisheries management (CBFM) approaches with the technical assistance from the WorldFish Center. The principal goal of the approaches was to provide access rights to the fishers through organizing poor fishers and the community to introduce sustainable fisheries management in beels, floodplains and River sections. The project implemented CBFM approaches in 39 river sections of which 15 sections belonged to the Fatki river (30 km long) that flows through Magura and Shalika upazilas (Sub districts) under Magura district. Each river section had a management committee that included representatives of direct beneficiaries, resource users and community leaders. The project developed an institutional mechanism for linkages and coordination among the river section committees to overcome the problem of cost and benefit sharing. The CBFM experiences suggest that management and institution building process in river management is complex, and requires participation of all concerned stakeholders including local government institutions and administration. CBFM-2 river fisheries management developed a broad-based institutional framework that includes community and local government along with the direct beneficiaries and resource users. A positive feature of such institutions is their ability to facilitate flow of information among agents, which is a key to maintain solidarity within and across groups. This paper draws lessons from the CBFM experiences in Bangladesh to manage river fisheries resources in Bangladesh.
Asia
Community Based Management,Fisheries Management,Institutions
4
No
198
Capistrano, Robert Charles G. 2010. Reclaiming the ancestral waters of indigenous peoples in the Philippines: The Tagbanua experience with fishing rights and indigenous rights. Marine Policy, 34: 453–460 doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2009.09.012
Documents and Reports
Fisheries Management Philippines
This paper discusses the impact of local and national policies in the Philippines on the participation of indigenous peoples in relation to fisheries management. Specifically, this research focuses on the Tagbanua, an indigenous group in Coron Island, Palawan, on the western side of the Philippines. The struggle of the Tagbanua in reclaiming their ancestral title to the land and sea reflects broader moves toward self-determination, which is critical not only to their ancestral lands and waters, but also to their survival. Indigenous rights are essential in addressing social justice and in giving a greater voice that encourages indigenous peoples towards self-governing institutions and common management of resources. While the basic premise assumes that the right to access and control of ancestral domain is critical to the indigenous peoples (IPs) in the Philippines, this paper addresses the following questions:(1)What does property rights mean to indigenous peoples who have been historically dependent on their natural resources?; (2)What level of organization or institutional mechanism is viable in the management of fisheries for IPs?; and (3)In the context of fisheries management, how should we integrate property rights with indigenous rights? Significantly, the fundamental development of indigenous peoples lies in the recognition of their rights in their ancestral domain and the preservation of their culture, tradition, system, practices and their natural resources. This paper examines the Tagbanua experience, through a critical exploration of institutions and property rights, with attention to corresponding effects in reducing conflict with other stakeholders in the area, and in affecting the sustainability of fishery resources.
Asia
Indigenous Communities,Indigenous People,Property rights,Institutions,Conflict Resolution,Conflicts,Conflict Management
4
No
199
Nasuchon, Nopparat and Anthony Charles. 2010. Community involvement in fisheries management: Experiences in the Gulf of Thailand countries. Marine Policy, 34:163–169 doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2009.06.005
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malaysia
This paper examines the involvement of coastal communities in fisheries management among the Countries of the Gulf of Thailand—Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. Initiatives to decentralize management to local governing bodies, to utilize traditional management methods and to engage in community agreements to protect local resources are explored. An examination of recent experiences indicates some movement toward more local involvement in management. While Malaysia seems slow in developing community based management, the project in Langkawi represents an innovative case study. In Vietnam, traditional rules and customs in the communities offer important support to an integrated community-based resource management approach. For example, the Ha Lien village community successfully identified the problems they faced and discovered the solutions they needed for sustainable resource use. The lack of legal recognition threatens long term sustainability. An examination of this set of experiences across the Gulf of Thailand countries indicates that community-based fisheries management needs to be flexible so that it can adapt to the needs of the individual community in each habitat or locale. Even within the same country, implementation may be different based on agreements and laws in effect in that particular area, as well as culture and tradition. However, the study also leads to several suggestions for the future : in Vietnam and Cambodia, there is a need for significant legislation to control fisheries operations and greater clarity of the role of communities in management; in Malaysia, there is an overall need for more support to local fisheries management; and in Thailand, the need is for greater support of local-level enforcement and monitoring activities
Asia
Resources Management,Legislation,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Cambodia
5
No
200
Govan, H., Alifereti Tawake, Kesaia Tabunakawai, Aaron Jenkins, Antoine Lasgorceix, Erika Techera, Hugo Tafea, Jeff Kinch, Jess Feehely, Pulea Ifopo, Roy Hills, Semese Alefaio, Semisi Meo, Shauna Troniak, Siola’a Malimali, Sylvia George, Talavou Tauaefa, Tevi Obed. 2009. Community Conserved Areas: A review of status & needs in Melanesia and Polynesia. ICCA regional review for CENESTA /TILCEPA /TGER /IUCN/ GEF-SGP.
Community based management N/a
Melanesia and Polynesia have seen an impressive increase in the number of marine protected areas over the last decade almost entirely due to the implementation or recognition of Community Conserved Areas based on regional assets in the form of traditional tenure and governance mechanisms. CCAs account for over 500 sites covering over 12,000 km2 of which more than 1,000 km2 is no-take. The wide spread proliferation of CCAs seems set to define the site based agenda for marine conservation in the South Pacific. The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of the CCA phenomenon with respect to the Melanesia and Polynesia regional context thereby contributing to strengthening and enhancing the appreciation of the phenomenon throughout the world. The major concern is because governments are slowly gearing up to increasing support for these sorts of approach and in many ways the very success of phenomenon poses its biggest threat. Large investments and institutionalization of CCAs may undermine their sustainability by decreasing their self reliance or even introducing dependencies such as incentives or external policing. The study puts forward a number of recommendations including Tenure and traditional governance, Characterize and defend local and cultural approaches, Careful scrutiny of international definitions and concepts for regional relevance, Improve and enhance participatory processes, Integrated island management as the goal, Enabling environment, Enhancing the role of government, Multi-sector integration in practice, Cost effectiveness, Research needs, Strengthen and adapt national and sub-national policy and institutional frameworks, Avoid raising unrealistic expectations. CCAs are being revitalized in the South Pacific in a unique global phenomenon and one of the untapped riches of the Pacific has begun to show its true potential; villages, communities, tribes, clans and districts are planning, implementing and enforcing management at the local level based on customary tenure. The challenge for policy-makers, scientists, government and non government institutions is to move beyond the emphasis on protected areas in isolation and support and promote this de-centralized Island way as a vital foundation in a truly regional approach to Integrated Island Management that can address the pressing issues associated with sustaining the region’s biodiversity and livelihoods.
Oceania
MPA,Customary Rights,Customary Tenure,Community Based Management
5
No
201
Lauer, Matthew and Shankar Aswani. 2010. Indigenous Knowledge and Long-term Ecological Change: Detection, Interpretation, and Responses to Changing Ecological Conditions in Pacific Island Communities. Environmental Management 45:985–997. DOI 10.1007/s00267-010-9471-9
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This paper looks at (1) the abilities of artisanal fishers in Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands to monitor long-term ecological change occurring to seagrass meadows near their communities; and (2) their understandings of the dynamic drivers of change. When local resource users detect, understand, and respond to environmental change they can more effectively manage environmental resources. In a comparison of two villages, it documents local resource users’ abilities to monitor long term ecological change occurring to seagrass meadows near their communities, their understandings of the drivers of change, and their conceptualizations of seagrass ecology. Local community leaders in this region exercise governance and management over the use of and access to natural resources in the lagoons and the adjacent coastal areas within their respective customary land and sea estates. Despite this system of indigenous land and sea tenure, population growth and growing development pressures have begun to overwhelm local governance controls and undermine sustainable resource use. Increasingly, the lagoon ecology and the social and political stability of the region are under threat. Local observations of ecological change are compared with historical aerial photography and IKONOS satellite images that show 56 years of actual changes in seagrass meadows from 1947 to 2003. Results suggest that villagers detect long-term changes in the spatial cover of rapidly expanding seagrass meadows. However, for seagrass meadows that showed no long-term expansion or contraction in spatial cover over one-third of respondents incorrectly assumed changes had occurred. Examples from a community-based management initiative designed around indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure governance show how local observations of ecological change shape marine resource use and practices which, in turn, can increase the management adaptability of indigenous or hybrid governance systems.
1
No
202
Lauer, Matthew and Shankar Aswani. 2010. Indigenous Knowledge and Long-term Ecological Change: Detection, Interpretation, and Responses to Changing Ecological Conditions in Pacific Island Communities. Environmental Management 45:985–997. DOI 10.1007/s00267-010-9471-9
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
This paper looks at (1) the abilities of artisanal fishers in Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands to monitor long-term ecological change occurring to seagrass meadows near their communities; and (2) their understandings of the dynamic drivers of change. When local resource users detect, understand, and respond to environmental change they can more effectively manage environmental resources. In a comparison of two villages, it documents local resource users’ abilities to monitor long term ecological change occurring to seagrass meadows near their communities, their understandings of the drivers of change, and their conceptualizations of seagrass ecology. Local community leaders in this region exercise governance and management over the use of and access to natural resources in the lagoons and the adjacent coastal areas within their respective customary land and sea estates. Despite this system of indigenous land and sea tenure, population growth and growing development pressures have begun to overwhelm local governance controls and undermine sustainable resource use. Increasingly, the lagoon ecology and the social and political stability of the region are under threat. Local observations of ecological change are compared with historical aerial photography and IKONOS satellite images that show 56 years of actual changes in seagrass meadows from 1947 to 2003. Results suggest that villagers detect long-term changes in the spatial cover of rapidly expanding seagrass meadows. However, for seagrass meadows that showed no long-term expansion or contraction in spatial cover over one-third of respondents incorrectly assumed changes had occurred. Examples from a community-based management initiative designed around indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure governance show how local observations of ecological change shape marine resource use and practices which, in turn, can increase the management adaptability of indigenous or hybrid governance systems.
Seagrasses,Customary Tenure,Community Based Management
4
No
203
Kawawana: Community conserved area of Mangagoulack – Casamence (Senegal)
Documents and Reports
Community based management Senegal
This is a presentation made on behalf of the fishermen of Mangagoulack. Ria Casamance is an estuarine ecosystem, with rich fisheries, mangroves and traditional rice cultivation supporting a rural community of Mangagoulack comprising of 8 villages and 12,000 people. Concerned about the deteriorating environment, the local fishermen created an association and took action in a number of ways of which one is the setting up of their own community conserved area. Kawamana translates to “Our local heritage to be preserved by us all”. The system has three zones, each with specific rules. After due process, a ceremony in July 2010 set the ICCA officially in place. Some of the lessons learnt are that local conserved areas are a felt need of the community; and for outsiders to respect such areas, there is need for official recognition.
Africa
Community Based Management
4
No
204
Clarke, Pepe and Stacy D. Jupiter. 2010. Law, custom and community-based natural resource management in Kubulau District (Fiji). Environmental Conservation, 37 (): 98–106 doi:10.1017/S0376892910000354
Documents and Reports
Community based management Fiji
A case study of Kubulau District (Bua Province, Fiji) illustrates the challenges and successes of implementing traditional community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) within a pluralist legal and institutional context. In 2005, the communities of Kubulau established a network of protected areas, including 17 traditional closures (tabu), three no-take district marine reserves, a legally–declared forest reserve and a proposed forest reserve, managed under an integrated ‘ridge-to-reef’ plan. In this study, specific examples of management successes and challenges in the maintenance of the largest district-wide MPA (Namena Marine Reserve) and establishment of forest reserves in Kubulau have been used to identify: (1) Under which circumstances do custom and law complement one another for governing and managing natural resources? (2) Under which situations does conflict arise between custom and law and what are the management implications of the discord? (3) What type of legal and institutional reform would help improve sustainable resource management while minimizing internal and external conflict? Marine and terrestrial areas in Kubulau illustrate synergies and discord between national laws and community management rules, and provide examples of management success and conflict. Key components influencing diverse management outcomes in Kubulau include (1) the legal status of customary resource tenure, (2) incorporation of local knowledge, traditions and priorities, (3) clearly articulated relationships between local decision making processes and government regulation, and (4) perceived equity in distribution of management benefits. Legal and institutional reforms are proposed to improve management of natural resources in Fiji.
Oceania
Protected Areas,Community Based Management,Customary Tenure,Legal pluralism
4
No
205
Utomo, Prayudi Budi. The Role of Traditional Knowledge in Fisheries Management: A Study Case of Panglima Laot (Sea Commander) in the Aceh Province of Indonesia. (2010). A dissertation submitted to the World Maritime University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master Of Science in Maritime Affairs (Marine Environment And Ocean Management). World Maritime University, Malmo, Sweden
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
This dissertation examines the role of traditional fisheries system with the study case of Panglima Laot (Sea Commander) System in Aceh Province of Indonesia which has been in place for over 400 years. It is a fishers’ institution which has played a dominant role in governing the fishing industry in Aceh for over four centuries. The traditional institution is composed of a loose network of localized fishers associations that follow a strict set of rules and regulations. There are currently 173 Panglima Laot in Aceh with about 400,000 members. Each Panglima Laot is located along the coastline village, estuary or a harbour. The term "Panglima Laot " is both the name of the institution as well as the title of the elder fisherman who leads the organization. Panglima laot also played an important role in the revival of fisheries in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The thesis discusses the effort to recognize and the adoption of the traditional knowledge in formal fisheries management system in Indonesia. This dissertation thus a policy analysis framework, with legislative and institutional activity as the focus of analysis. Other factors are also briefly investigated including empowered communities and partnership initiatives
Community Based Management,Traditional Knowledge,Participatory Management
5
Dissertation also contains information about other community based management systems
No
206
Pitt, Hannah. 2007. To live with the Sea: Community based management of marine resources in South-west Madagascar. Madagascar Culture and Society.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
In 23 Vezo fishing villages in the region of Andavadoaka, along the southwest coast of Madagascar, communities have collectively established seasonal and permanent restrictions on critical fishing grounds that together make up 823km2 marine protected area. It began in 2003 when after significant declines in the catch of octopus and fish, the inhabitants of Andavadoaka decided to establish a trial no-take-zone. After seven months of restricted octopus harvesting, population and average size of the species had increased. News of the success spurred many neighbouring communities to follow suit. In 2006, an association was established to oversee the growing community-based management efforts and provide a structure to address the concerns of the fishermen in the region. The Velondriake (To live with the sea) association has elected representatives from each of the participating villages which are subdivided into three administrative bodies by geographic region. This study analyses how and to what extent the participating communities are benefitting from the protection and regulation of marine areas, and how local development initiatives can be improved and expanded to better integrate local needs and enhance the quality of life.
Africa
Community Based Management,Octopus
4
No
207
Hoffman, David M. 2009. Institutional Legitimacy and Co-Management of a Marine Protected Area: Implementation Lessons from the Case of Xcalak Reefs National Park, Mexico. Human Organization; 68(): 39-54.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
This paper is an exploration of the relationship between a conservation intervention and the quest for local institutional legitimacy and conservation success through co-management. More precisely, this paper will employ the case of Xcalak Reefs National Park (PNAX) to illuminate the interaction between contextual and procedural elements of co-management implementation, how these variables affect the production of legitimacy in the minds of local resource users, and how resultant attitudes can subvert both management devolution and resource conservation. The failure to produce co-management will be related to the mismatch inherent in attempts to map co-management onto a histories and institutions that do not align with the morality and practicalities necessary for its implementation. In conclusion, the author points out that the Xcalak story shows the way in which varied perspectives on the reason, rationale, and constituency of conservation affect the process and outcomes. PNAX brings to the forefront the inherent conflicts between the desires and expectations of communities, NGOs, and the federal government. Local actors want to conserve resources to maintain their utilization and control. The other actors' interest lies in serving the national and global constituency's need for the conservation of the global biodiversity "commons." The PNAX case shows how these contradictions play out in management, as well as the effects upon community opinion and use of resources. Ultimately, PNAX and Xcalak demonstrate that, regardless of which commons we are trying to promote (local or global), much more attention needs to be paid to contextual variables, the process of project implementation, and their influence on local opinion and behavior. If not, the aims of conservation and community development will remain elusive at best.
Latin America
Conservation,Commons,Co-management
3
No
208
Levine, Arielle. Local Responses to Marine Conservation in Zanzibar, Tanzania. GAIA Articles, Global, Area, and International Archive, UC Berkeley. (05-23-2006)
Documents and Reports
http://escholarship.org/uc/item/28r16147
Community based management N/a
Although terrestrial parks and reserves have existed in Tanzania since colonial times, marine protected areas are a much newer endeavor in natural resource conservation. As the importance of marine conservation came to the international forefront in the 1990s, Tanzania experienced a rapid establishment and expansion of marine parks and protected areas. These efforts were crucial to protecting the country’s marine resource base, but they also had significant implications for the lives and fishing patterns of local artisanal fishermen. Terrestrial protected areas in Tanzania have historically been riddled with conflict and local contestation, bringing about numerous debates on the best ways to involve rural residents in conservation planning efforts to establish new “community-based conservation” initiatives. Because marine protected areas do not have the same conflict-ridden history as terrestrial conservation in Tanzania, marine conservation programs present a new opportunity to pilot innovative techniques to involve local communities in protecting and managing their natural resources. The islands of Zanzibar are home to four community-oriented marine protected areas, each of which is sponsored by an external agency, and each of which involves some form of local community component. However, a number of issues arise when working at the community level, requiring nuanced attention to a variety of local factors. The Menai Bay program in southern Zanzibar provides an excellent example of the complexity of factors involved, which can result in dramatically different village-level responses to a single program. These factors include, but are not limited to, differences in geography and infrastructure, the potential for tourism development and alternative sources of income, pre-existing community structures within each village, and the relationship of conservation program managers to the Zanzibari government. While these factors are complex and difficult to predict, it is essential that conservation programs work to take them into account when trying to establish community-based marine conservation programs that will be sustainable in the long term.
Community Based Management,Tourism
4
No
209
Pinto da Silva, Patricia. 2004. From common property to co-management: lessons from Brazil’s first maritime extractive reserve. Marine Policy, 28: 419-428.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Brazil
Marine extractive reserves (MER) are being established in coastal areas of Brazil to protect ‘traditional’ coastal populations and the marine resources upon which their livelihoods depend. This approach to conservation is supported by common property theory that questions the inevitable destruction of collectively managed resources. This paper examines the challenges Brazil’s first open-water MER is facing in trying to achieve these goals. A brief review of the theoretical underpinnings of common property management through collaborative management is presented followed by a summary of the historic evolution and the creation process of MERs. The paper then investigates the quality of the institutions which have traditionally governed the beach seining community in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Finally, factors that constrain or provide potential for long-term participatory conservation are presented. Results from a pilot project in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro suggest that significant social barriers to collective action exist and that local resource governing institutions are not robust. Consequently, fishers are not becoming decisive players in the decision-making process. The implications of these conclusions for future maritime conservation policy in Brazil are explored. The study concludes that extractive reserves in general represent the first conservation units in which specifically involve local communities in their design and management. These initiatives have enormous potential for conserving coastal areas and securing the livelihoods of coastal populations. This study suggests, however, that in order for these goals to be realized both parties must be willing and able to carry out their role in the process.
Latin America
Community Based Management,Decision Making,Extractive Reserves,Common Property Resources
5
No
210
Govan, Hugh, Alifereti Tawake and Kesaia Tabunakawa.M. 2006. Community-based marine resource management in the South Pacific. Parks 16 : 63-67.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Fiji
Approaches to conservation and fisheries management often promoted at a global level have had little impact in the South Pacific such as in Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu, due to the special situation of these island nations. Community-based management of marine resources based on traditional and modern knowledge and developed at a local level seems to be the way forward. Fijian communities have arguably shown the most impressive progress supported by a national network of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and government organizations supporting ‘locally managed marine areas’ or LMMA. Samoa has shown the strongest government investment (supported by Australian aid) in community-based fisheries management. By the late 1990s, this had resulted in a national network of dozens of village fisheries management areas. Communities in Vanuatu have preserved traditional management in the form of ‘tabu’ areas, and in others this tradition has been revived with the support of fisheries officers, other government organisations and NGOs. About 80 villages are reported to be actively managing their marine resources in this manner. The situation is similar although perhaps less advanced in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Palau, with community, NGO and government partnerships resulting in dozens more areas actively managed by communities. The close relationship that Pacific Island peoples have developed with the ocean over millennia is a key part of the region’s rich culture. Despite the erosion of both cultural and natural resources in recent decades, the capacity and knowledge of coastal communities appear to provide the fundamental pillar for achieving sustainable livelihoods from the sea. Partnerships between communities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governments are an important mechanism but it is essential that the aspirations of communities are treated as the main driving force for this type of management and that their legal or de facto rights over resources are respected.
Oceania
Fisheries Management,Coral Reefs,Community Based Management
4
No
211
Kalpavriksh. Indian Laws, Policies & Action Plans Relevant to Community Conserved Areas. Legislation Briefing Note. undated
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
Many tribal communities and other traditional forest dwelling communities living in close proximity to and dependent on their immediate ecosystem for their survival, have a rich history of living in harmony with their surroundings. There are thousands of examples, ranging from sacred groves, landscapes and waterscapes that have been protected by communities through many generations to the more recent initiatives at regenerating and protecting forests, providing protection to sea turtle nesting sites, conservation of nesting and wintering birds, and safeguarding eco-systems against ‘development’ threats. These diverse efforts have been given the nomenclature of Community Conserved Areas (CCAs). CCAs can be defined as natural or modified eco-systems (with minimal to substantial human influence) – providing significant biodiversity, ecological services and cultural values; voluntarily conserved by indigenous people or other local communities through customary laws or other effective means. These CCAs have their own institutions and relevant rules and codes that are site specific and depend on the nature of the environment, the nature of the community and other local social, political and economical factors. A more recent phenomenon is the formal environment, forest, wildlife and biodiversity protection system adopted by the country and a number of formal laws, policies and action plans have been put in place by the Government of India towards this end. All these have a bearing on existing CCAs. In many cases the formal system, if appropriately designed could provide the much needed legal backing that CCAs require to hold their own against the various external and internal threats. This document is a tabular representations showing the strengths and weaknesses of the various formal laws, policies and action plans with regard to the effect they have on CCAs.
Asia
Community Based Management,Legislation
4
No
212
Cinner, Joshua E. Michael J. 2005. Marnane, and Tim R. Mcclanahan. Conservation and Community Benefits from Traditional Coral Reef Management at Ahus Island, Papua New Guinea. Conservation Biology 19 (): 1714–1723 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00269.x
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The authors investigated traditional coral reef management practices at Ahus Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea, to evaluate their social role in the community and potential to conserve reef ecosystems. At Ahus the reef tambu areas operate within the context of a complicated customary marine tenure system that regulates access to specific reef areas, target species, and harvesting methods. Ahus Islanders claim exclusive rights to all marine resources on the reefs surrounding their island, the neighboring and uninhabited Onetta Island, and the reefs between Ahus Island and the coast of Manus Island. Ownership rights help create an economic monopoly on marine resources among fishing communities (Malinowski 1935). The reefs surrounding Ahus Island are divided into areas owned by specific clans. It is through this clan ownership of delineated reef areas that the tambu areas are maintained and enforced. Some families also own the rights to harvest certain species (including turtle, coral, and sea cucumbers) or harvesting technology (such as traditional nets), which are not restricted spatially. For generations, Ahus Islanders have prohibited spear and net fishing within six delineated areas of their reef lagoon. One to three times per year, fish are briefly harvested from the restricted areas to provide food for ceremonial occasions. Underwater visual censuses of fishes revealed a significantly greater biomass and average size of target species within the restricted areas (205 kg/ha ± 20 [SE]; 102 mm TL [total length] ± 0.7) compared with areas without fishing restrictions (127 kg/ha ± 13 SE; 85 mm TL ± 0.7). The authors estimated the biomass of fish removed during one of the harvest events was 5 to 10% of the available biomass within the restricted area, and in underwater visual surveys conducted before and after a harvesting event and detected no effect of harvesting on fish stocks. Compliance with the fishing restriction is attributed to its perceived legitimacy, its ability to provide the community with direct and indirect benefits, and its reflection of local socioeconomic circumstances. Limited-take closure systems that can serve the needs of a community may provide a viable conservation alternative in situations where compliance with fully closed protected-area regulations is low and resources for proper enforcement are untenable.
Australia/Oceania
Traditional Management Systems,PNG,Customary Tenure,Customary practices,Community Based Management
4
No
213
Berkes, F. 2004. Rethinking community based conservation. Conservation Biology 18: 621-630
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Community based conservation (CBC) is based on the idea that if conservation and development could be simultaneously achieved, then the interests of both could be served. It has been controversial because community development objectives are not necessarily consistent with conservation objectives in a given case. The author has examined CBC from two angles. In the first angle, in the context of paradigm shifts in ecology and applied ecology, three conceptual shifts were identified – towards a systems view, towards the inclusion of humans in the ecosystem and towards participatory approaches to ecosystem management – that are interrelated and pertain to an understanding of ecosystems as complex adaptive systems in which humans are an integral part. The second was an investigation into the feasibility of CBC, as informed by a number of emerging interdisciplinary fields that have been pursuing various aspects of coupled systems of humans and nature. These fields – common property, traditional ecological knowledge, environmental ethics, political ecology and environmental history – provide insights for CBC. They may contribute to the development of an interdisciplinary conservation science with a more sophisticated understanding of social-ecological interactions. The lessons from these fields include the importance of cross-scale conservation, adaptive comanagement, the question of incentives and multiple stakeholders, the use of traditional ecological knowledge and development of a cross cultural conservation ethic.
Adaptive management,Co-management,Common Property Resources
4
General paper on cbm, theoretical base helpful
No
214
Gerhardinger Leopoldo C. 2009., Eduardo A.S. Godoy and, Peter J.S. Jones. Local ecological knowledge and the management of marine protected areas in Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management 52 154–165 doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.12.007
Documents and Reports
Traditional Knowledge,Community based management N/a
This manuscript discusses the role of fishers’ Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) in the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken at nine MPAs to investigate MPA managers’ (n ¼ 9) and higher governmental level authorities’ (n ¼ 5) perceptions on these. Varying levels of MPA governance approaches were assessed, from government-led centralized top-down (e.g. marine biological reserves) to community-based bottom-up MPA categories (e.g. marine extractive reserves). The use of fishers’ LEK was found to be an essential means of achieving a broader and more diverse knowledge basis for MPA management, though most of the management current in place is still science-driven in Brazil. The full engagement of local knowledge can also be regarded as a means of empowering local communities and promoting responsibility, but only if a more inclusive praxis of participation is put to work. Different meanings for ‘Local Knowledge Use’ in MPA management were outlined and described for different management approaches (top-down vs. bottom-up). It was noted that each of these meanings brings different outcomes in terms of stakeholder participation and empowerment. It is also suggested that MPA co-management schemes might benefit from the adoption of a ‘knowledge-building’ instead of ‘knowledge-using’ approach during a ‘problem-solving’ instead of ‘decision-making’ management process. Finally, it is concluded that it will be an enormous challenge to put LEK to work in the benefit of MPAs in the country amidst so many priority actions brought by the problems affecting the Brazilian National System of MPAs. Government must open up the agenda to deliberatively discuss the roles of local knowledge in MPA management, whilst local communities organise themselves and increase the demand for participation with responsibility.
Latin America
Traditional ecological knowladge,MPA,Local knowladge,Co-management
5
No
215
Lam, Michelle. 1998. Consideration of customary marine tenure system in the establishment of marine protected areas in the South Pacific. Ocean & Coastal Management 39 97-104
Documents and Reports
Community based management Pacific Island
The biodiversity of the South Pacific region is of global importance. Changes accompanying economic development have undermined the Pacific's traditional social systems, including their capacity for resource management, and the environment has suffered as a result. The South Pacific's social and land/marine tenure systems require local ownership involvements and management. Centralized administration and management systems which began in the colonial period had failed to promote marine resource management. Customary landowners need to be involved from the very beginning in decisions about the future of their resources. Although CMT in the South Pacific may be referred to as systems of "traditional resource management" based on "customary law", this does not mean that tradition is static, rigid and non-changing. Rather tradition is a system of knowledge and rules which has, on the one hand strong roots in local history and experience, and which is on the other unwritten and uncodified, thereby allowing for flexibility in adapting to changing social, political, economic or ecological circumstances. Thus far from being overwhelmed by commercialization and resource scarcity, many CMT systems in Oceania appear to have considerable capacity for handling and adapting to new circumstances, therefore becoming potentially important tools in the contemporary management of fisheries. The need to establish marine protected areas (MPA) is urgent. Population growth, urbanization and rapid development are causing overharvesting of finite marine resources as well as pollution of the coastal zone. The success of MPA will depend on the customary right holders and their ability to satisfy both their subsistence needs and their aspiration for economic development. This paper proposes the establishment of MPAs in the South Pacific by using a strategy of community based management that has been established in the customary marine tenure system. The use of some traditional conservation method could also be effectively incorporated into MPA systems.
Oceania
MPA,Customary Tenure,Community Based Management
4
No
216
Ranjane, Smita, Rabindranath Sahu and Neema Pathak. Rushikulya rookery, Ganjam: A case study. Pp 493-497 in Community Conserved Areas in India – a Directory. CCA/Orissa/CS3/Ganjam/Rushikulya/Species conservation
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
Rushikulya rookery is one of the examples where the community is playing crucial role in conservation of Olive Ridley sea turtles. The Rushikulya sea turtle rookery came to the knowledge of the scientific community in 1994, when the Wildlife Institute of India discovered this place as the third largest rookery for Olive Ridley sea turtle nesting. The rookery is situated on the sand-pit of Rushikulya estuary near Ganjam. The fisherfolk from Purunabandha, Palibandha, Gokhurkuda and Nuagaon are entirely dependent on the estuary and the offshore waters for their livelihood. Now Rushikulya is becoming famous due to effective conservation of Olive Ridley turtles by communities, and the degradation of other two major turtle congregation areas—Devi and Gahirmatha—where mass nesting is rarely taking place due to massive killing of turtles by illegal fishing activities. Thus the people at Rushikulya play a vital role in protecting this globally threatened species. In 1998, the Rushikulya Sea Turtle Protection Committee was registered by the youth from Purunabandha village. After the committee’s recognition in 1994, the forest department has been conducting annual counts of the nests. During the nesting and hatching period about 10-20 youth from the village help the FD with protection of the nesting site. The people in Rushikulya have already stopped consumption and trade of turtle eggs and live turtles. Furthermore about 10-20 youths in each of the four villages (Purunabandha, Palibandha, Gokhurkuda and Nuagaon) are involved with the Wildlife Department in the turtle census and protection during nesting. For protection of nests, villagers avoid walking on the nesting beach during the hatching period (March-April), so that the eggs are not damaged. At the time of hatching, villagers protect hatchlings from their natural predators and collect disoriented hatchlings to immediately release them in the sea. The community is not only involved in giving protection to turtles on land but is also taking measures to avoid turtle deaths in the sea.
Asia
Turtle,Community Based Management
4
Case study
No
217
Kearney, John, F. Berkes, A. Charles, E. Pinkerton and M. Wiber. 2007. The Role of Participatory Governance and Community-Based Management in Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management in Canada. Coastal Management, 35 ():79–104
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
This article examines the state of community-based management and participatory governance in Canada as it applies to integrated coastal and ocean management (ICOM). The article analyzes the barriers confronting participatory governance, the success stories and the lessons learned, as well as presenting recommendations for moving forward. There is compelling evidence that participatory governance is crucial for contending with complex problems of managing for multiple values and outcomes to achieve ecological sustainability and economic development. Canada’s Oceans Act, and federal oceans policy provide a strong basis for the participatory governance and community based management of coastal and large ocean resources. The implementation of the Oceans Act and oceans policy has resulted in some steps toward participatory governance but has not adequately provided the mechanisms for a strong role for communities in integrated coastal and ocean management (ICOM). In order to strengthen and develop community participation in ICOM, nine initiatives are recommended: (1) shifting paradigms, (2) overcoming ‘turf protection,’ (3) ensuring compatibility of goals, (4) ensuring sufficiency of information, (5) dealing with internal community stratification, (6) creating cross-scale linkages, (7) creating a participatory policy environment, (8) building community capacity, and (9)monitoring and assessment of local-level initiatives. The authors say that capacity-building is necessary both to overcome the barriers to collaboration and to strengthen existing participatory efforts. In overcoming these barriers and in creating a collaborative environment, capacity-building is required for all participants, be they with government, industry, scientific institutions, or communities. It is suggested that these capacity building efforts will be more effective if these different groups can combine their efforts by coming together in learning communities for ICOM.
N. America
Community Based Management,participatory approach,Capacity Building
4
No
218
Ramachandran, C and R. Sathiadas. 2006. Marine resource conservation and management through a traditional community based institution - Case of Kadakkody (Sea-court) in Malabar Coast of India. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India, 48 : 76 - 82
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
This case study is about a unique institution called Kadakkody (literally meaning "sea court") prevalent in Kerala, in Malabar coast of India. Its presence as well as the institutional reinvention it has undergone raises interesting questions like 1) how and.why this institution has survived? 2) what role does it play in resource management? 3) status and validity of regulations endorsed by the Kadakkody and 4) does it offer any policy insights for resource management in tropical waters? The field study was conducted in four coastal villages (Kasargod, Kizhoor, Kodikkulam and Bakkalam). The case study protocol had the following diagnostic themes namely I) description of the constitution of Kadakkody, 11) structure and functions of Kadakkody, 111) its role as a Community Based Institution in marine fisheries management, IV) status and validity of regulations endorsed by the Kadakkody, V) interplay of factors that define its evolution as well as institutionalisation and VI) role of the state and policy implications. The Kadakkody functions more as a court as it has legislative, executive and judiciary roles to play in the Araya and Dheevara communities of Hindu fishermen belonging to Kasargod district of Kerala. The role of Kadakkody as a community based fisheries management institution was examined by collecting the unwritten or noncodified rules/norms evolved by this institution over the years for the management of fisheries resources across the four areas. Only 4 such measures are still practiced of the many that were earlier used. The authors conclude that the persistence of kadakkody depends on a multiplicity of factors and so defies any bureaucratic duplication in its institutionalisation. The role of the State should be to enable political contexts that nurture the genesis and co-evolution of people's own resource management initiatives and institutions. What is required is the emergence of a new political ethos built on the foundations of ecology and ethics.
Asia
Community Based Management,Kerala,Traditional Management Systems
5
No
219
Ferrari, Maurizio Farhan. 2006. Rediscovering community conserved areas in South-east Asia: peoples’ initiative to reverse biodiversity loss. Parks 16 Community Conserved Areas
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
In several South-east Asian countries, after a long history of marginalisation and loss of control over natural resources, indigenous peoples and local communities have recently been trying to regain rights over local resources and establishing various forms of community-based resource management. The paper provides information on the status and trends of community conserved areas (CCAs) in the region and examines some of the main challenges to overcome in order to achieve recognition and support of CCAs. While there is no fully reliable data on the exact number or the total area covered by community conserved areas (CCAs), there are indications of hundreds or even thousands of community forests in Thailand, more than 500 community-based coastal resources management (CBCRM) initiatives in the Philippines, and a large number of community forests in the highlands, as well as a growing number in Indonesia and Cambodia. The wide variety of CCAs are of three categories: (i) based on traditional and customary beliefs and practices; (ii) externally motivated (NGOs, Government agencies, donor agencies); and (iii) a combination of these two. The authors conclude that during the past two decades, there has been a steady increase in the number of community-based projects in biodiversity management. Some of the most critical issues that still need to be tackled are the unequal power relations in ownership of, and access to, natural resources, and the recognition of indigenous peoples and local communities’ rights, and their traditional knowledge and customary use. A much more active approach is needed in order to respond to indigenous peoples and local communities’ efforts, initiatives and demands as well as to fulfil governments’ obligations under international law.
Asia
Property rights,Community Based Management
3
No
220
Kalanda-Sabola, M.D., E. M. T. Henry, E. Kayambazinthu, J. Wilson. Use of indigenous knowledge and traditional practices in fisheries management: a case of Chisi Island, Lake Chilwa, Zomba
Documents and Reports
Traditional Knowledge N/a
This paper presents results of a study, which examined local ecological knowledge and traditional management practices in lake resources management on Chisi Island. A combination of household questionnaires, semi structured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions were used to collect the required data for the study. The paper also includes review of other scientific studies done in the area to validate the survey results. The study found that Chisi inhabitants have developed and maintained some local ecological knowledge and practices that can have significant implications in scientific studies and on the management of lake resources on the Island. The practices included restricted cutting of Typha, fishing and access in sacred sites and conservation of mabawe. These traditional practices encouraged regeneration and sustainable utilisation of fish. The knowledge systems have been conserved and passed on from generation to generation through religious beliefs, taboos and myths. Some indigenous knowledge systems have been eroded over the past years due to changes in social structures, immigration and advent of new religions, adoption of new resource harvesting techniques and changes in life styles. Although these knowledge systems were not specifically meant for conservation of natural resources, the study argues that to achieve sustainable designs or implementation of natural resource management projects, there is need to integrate relevant existing indigenous knowledge systems that promote conservation of resources.
Africa
Traditional Knowledge,Local knowladge,Indigenous Knowledge
3
No
221
Amarsinghe, U.S., W.U. Chandrasekara and H.M.P. Kithsiri. 1997. Asian Fisheries Society 9: 311-323
Documents and Reports
Community based management Sri Lanka
In the present paper, community-based fishery management of the stake-seine fishery of Negombo estuary, Sri Lanka, is described with a view to identifying property right regimes in the fishery. In the Negombo estuary or Sri Lanka, there is an artisanal fishery for penaeid shrimp locally known as stake-seine fishery. Stake-seine nets, which can be fixed in specific sites close to the sea mouth, are used for catching shrimp that migrate from the estuary to the sea. According to regulations imposed by the fishing communities, use-rights in the fishery are granted to descendants of certain fishing families in four villages. Among the stake-seine fishers who are organized into four rural societies, an effective mechanism has been evolved for resource sharing in the fishery over a period or several hundred years. For equity sharing of the resource, different fishing dates are assigned to the four rural societies, and fishing sites are allocated to individual fishers in each society using a lottery system. Sustenance of this traditional practice is due to the fact that the returns from the fishery are significant. High shrimp yields can be considered as one of the major outcomes of resource sharing practice in the stake-seine fishery of Negombo estuary because they are directly responsible for the living standards of fishing community. The cost of equity sharing procedure in the fishery is manifested by regular attendance at meetings, compliance with the regulations, etc. The benefits enjoyed by the fishing community, such as good income, cooperation among members, and social welfare, surpass the cost of maintenance of the traditional practice. Also the equity sharing procedure in the fishery which has evolved over a long period and has been reinforced recently by the government regulations, has nullified the disputes among fishers. This is also an indication of the performance of the traditional practice for resource sharing because fair treatment of all members in the community is assured through the system. Community-based management strategies for the fisheries in developing countries can therefore be defined by adopting relevant mechanisms found in these types of artisanal fisheries.
Asia
Shrimp,Community Based Management,Traditional Practice
4
No
222
Legal Aspects Relating To Community Fisheries Management. UNIT 6 – Coastal Fisheries Policy & Planning Course, Samoa, ‘08 – LegalAspectsCommunity - PEM/1107
Documents and Reports
Community based management Pacific Island
In the present paper, community-based fishery management of the stake-seine fishery of Negombo estuary, Sri Lanka, is described with a view to identifying property right regimes in the fishery. In the Negombo estuary or Sri Lanka, there is an artisanal fishery for penaeid shrimp locally known as stake-seine fishery. Stake-seine nets, which can be fixed in specific sites close to the sea mouth, are used for catching shrimp that migrate from the estuary to the sea. According to regulations imposed by the fishing communities, use-rights in the fishery are granted to descendants of certain fishing families in four villages. Among the stake-seine fishers who are organized into four rural societies, an effective mechanism has been evolved for resource sharing in the fishery over a period or several hundred years. For equity sharing of the resource, different fishing dates are assigned to the four rural societies, and fishing sites are allocated to individual fishers in each society using a lottery system. Sustenance of this traditional practice is due to the fact that the returns from the fishery are significant. High shrimp yields can be considered as one of the major outcomes of resource sharing practice in the stake-seine fishery of Negombo estuary because they are directly responsible for the living standards of fishing community. The cost of equity sharing procedure in the fishery is manifested by regular attendance at meetings, compliance with the regulations, etc. The benefits enjoyed by the fishing community, such as good income, cooperation among members, and social welfare, surpass the cost of maintenance of the traditional practice. Also the equity sharing procedure in the fishery which has evolved over a long period and has been reinforced recently by the government regulations, has nullified the disputes among fishers. This is also an indication of the performance of the traditional practice for resource sharing because fair treatment of all members in the community is assured through the system. Community-based management strategies for the fisheries in developing countries can therefore be defined by adopting relevant mechanisms found in these types of artisanal fisheries.
Oceania
MPA,Marine Reserves,Legislation,Legal Issues
3
No
223
Legal Aspects Relating To Community Fisheries Management. UNIT 6 – Coastal Fisheries Policy & Planning Course, Samoa, ‘08 – LegalAspectsCommunity - PEM/1107
Documents and Reports
Community based management Pacific Island
In the present paper, community-based fishery management of the stake-seine fishery of Negombo estuary, Sri Lanka, is described with a view to identifying property right regimes in the fishery. In the Negombo estuary or Sri Lanka, there is an artisanal fishery for penaeid shrimp locally known as stake-seine fishery. Stake-seine nets, which can be fixed in specific sites close to the sea mouth, are used for catching shrimp that migrate from the estuary to the sea. According to regulations imposed by the fishing communities, use-rights in the fishery are granted to descendants of certain fishing families in four villages. Among the stake-seine fishers who are organized into four rural societies, an effective mechanism has been evolved for resource sharing in the fishery over a period or several hundred years. For equity sharing of the resource, different fishing dates are assigned to the four rural societies, and fishing sites are allocated to individual fishers in each society using a lottery system. Sustenance of this traditional practice is due to the fact that the returns from the fishery are significant. High shrimp yields can be considered as one of the major outcomes of resource sharing practice in the stake-seine fishery of Negombo estuary because they are directly responsible for the living standards of fishing community. The cost of equity sharing procedure in the fishery is manifested by regular attendance at meetings, compliance with the regulations, etc. The benefits enjoyed by the fishing community, such as good income, cooperation among members, and social welfare, surpass the cost of maintenance of the traditional practice. Also the equity sharing procedure in the fishery which has evolved over a long period and has been reinforced recently by the government regulations, has nullified the disputes among fishers. This is also an indication of the performance of the traditional practice for resource sharing because fair treatment of all members in the community is assured through the system. Community-based management strategies for the fisheries in developing countries can therefore be defined by adopting relevant mechanisms found in these types of artisanal fisheries.
Oceania
MPA,Marine Reserves,Legislation,Legal Issues
3
No
224
Basuki, Riyanto. Maawu Dabau Bakuok (MDB): A Traditional System of Management for Fisheries in Bakuok Lake, Kampar Community, Riau Province. 2002. In Traditional fisheries management systems in six provinces of Indonesia: North Sumatra, West Sumatra, Aceh, Jambi, South Sumatra and Riau (Ed. Basuki, R.; Singh Yadava, Y.). FAO-FI--BOBP/REP/89; FAO-FI--GCP/RAS/150/DEN
Documents and Reports
http://www.konservasi.org/pdf/Maawu%20Dabau.pdf ; http://www.onefish.org/global/BOBP/bobp%20reports-pdf/BOBP%20Rep89.pdf
Community based management Indonesia
Indonesia follows a system of open-access fisheries and common property management, so that anyone can enter the fisheries without any restriction. This system has led to over-exploitation without any thought given to maximum sustainable yield. Fisheries management in Indonesia is centralised -- laws are issued by the government and implemented by fishers. This approach to management assumes that the villagers and the fishers have no ability to manage the resources and that the government must manage the resources. Traditional fisheries management in Indonesia has been established for a long time in both inland and marine fisheries. The capture system in Bakuok Lake was established a long time ago. Till now no rules exist for Maawu Dabau Bakuok (MDB), but the local community obeys regulations. Although the system of regulations has been running well, an evaluation of MDB would be in order in the interest of future fisheries development. This paper results from a research survey conducted in September 1998 in Tambang District, Kampar Regency. Interviews were done with tribal chiefs, the head of Aursati village, the head of Tambang village and local communities. The study focused on two factors: essential and optional. The essential factor may be regarded as institution based. Basically, community-based resource management (CBRM) focuses on shared norms and objectives and on consistent adherence to some socio-economic goals. The optional factor of CBRM is the organisational structure which may change repeatedly, depending on roles accepted and recognised by the society. The study found that although MDB as customary law is ancient, some external elements have been introduced into it. The MDB tradition has become one of co-management. Cash penalties and confiscation of fishing gear have been a part of enforcement regulations. Social sanctions are not applied any more.
Asia
Community Based Management,Co-management,Customary law,Traditional Management Systems
4
No
225
So Srey Mom. 2002.. Community Based Coastal Resource Management (CBCRM). A Case Study from Preah Sihanouk “Ream” National Park (PRNP) in Kompong Som Province and Peam Krasaop Wildlife Sanctuary (PKWS) in Koh Kong Province, Kingdom of Cambodia. CBNRM Initiative/WWF/MAFF.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
Two community based coastal resource management (CBCRM) projects, implemented in Ream National Park and Peam Krasaop Wildlife Sanctuary are the first examples of CBCRM within Cambodia’s coastline. The processes of community organizing work that is discussed in this case study are based on the villagers’ daily activities and the work of the project teams. A main message from the study is that community fisheries management has reduced illegal activities and increased level of small scale catch in the community’s managed areas at both sites. The document describes the similarities and differences in the two sites and the methodology followed in the process of organizing the community in the two sites. Various trainings, workshops, study tours and day to day learning have helped the communities to develop action plans for managing their resources. Local communities’ rights to participate in coastal resources management has also been recognized by provincial governors and technical institutions. A set of recommendations have also been made. These include additional capacity building as well as encouraging and creating opportunities for stakeholders to support and participate in the management process.
Asia
Community Based Management
4
Documentation of actual work in creating community management structures; also available Khmer
No
226
Bailey, Conner and Charles Zerner. 1992. Community Based Fisheries Management Institutions in Indonesia. Maritime Anthropological Studies 5 :1-17.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
In this paper, the positive prospects as well as problems of local resource management in Indonesia are presented through recent case studies in Kalimantan and the Maluku Islands. These case studies are preceded by a general discussion which lays out the rationale for local management of common property fisheries resources. Following the case studies, the paper concludes with a discussion of the opportunities and limitations associated with local fisheries management and with specific legal and policy recommendations for encouraging effective local management of fisheries resources in Indonesia. The case studies were based on field research conducted in Indonesia during 1990 and 1991. The authors discuss the functioning of local fisheries management systems in a lake and river system of West Kalimantan Province, and management systems found to operate in the Maluku Islands. Both Moluccan and Kalimantan cases demonstrate the flexibility of community management institutions responding to rapid changes in the values of locally available resources. While the Kalimantan case demonstrates an attempt to wisely manage resources in the context of increasing market-generated pressures for exploitation, the Moluccan case demonstrates the relative weakness of community management structures and the potential for 'take-overs' by non-local, private sector or local government elites. The two case studies demonstrate that local management systems are dynamic and under significant commercial and political pressure. The case studies also demonstrate that such systems are both dynamic and variable. The argument is made that the central government lacks both the detailed knowledge of local ecosystems and the enforcement capability necessary to effectively manage highly diverse fisheries resources in this large archipelagic nation.
Asia
Community Based Management
4
No
227
Hickey, F.R and R.E. Johannes. 2002. Recent evolution of village-based marine resource management in Vanuatu. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #14.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
In 1993 a study of coastal villages in Vanuatu revealed that within the previous three years there had been a rapid increase in marine resource management (MRM) activities. The initial impetus for these events was the Vanuatu Fisheries Department’s promotion of a voluntary, village-based trochus management programme. Initially the programme involved only a few fishing villages out of a total of several hundred. The Department surveyed their community trochus stocks, advised the people that regular several-year closures of their trochus fishery, followed by brief openings, would generate far more profit than the usual practice of harvesting continually. They left it to the villagers to decide whether or not to act on this advice. The 1993 study revealed that villages that followed this advice found it so profitable that other villages quickly followed suit. Moreover, seeing what conservation could do for their trochus stocks, many villages decided to implement their own conservation measures to protect other marine animals, including finfishes, lobsters, clams, beche-de-mer (sea cucumbers) and crabs, as well as to ban or restrict certain harmful fishing practices such as night spearfishing and the use of nets, especially gill nets. One of the surveyed villages set up a marine protected area and stocked it with giant clams. 21 of the villages surveyed in 1993 were resurveyed in 2001 to determine how successful these community initiated management measures had been in the eyes of the villagers. This was done by determining how many MRM measures had lapsed and how many new ones had been initiated. Results revealed that village-based MRM measures had more than doubled between 1993 and 2001. In addition to the fisheries department, a potent source of motivation for village-based MRM that emerged in 1995 was the locally renowned travelling theatre group called Wan Smolbag (WSB) which featured the plight of sea turtles resulting in the villagers working towards turtle conservation.
Asia
Community Based Management,Sea Turtle,Marine Reserves,Resources Management,Customary Tenure,Traditional Knowledge
5
This article is a condensed version of ‘Evolution of village-based marine resource management in Vanuatu between 1993 and 2001’, by R.E. Johannes and F.R. Hickey, a Report to Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and Small Islands Bureau, UNESCO. The report may be found at http://www.unesco.org/csi/wise/indigenous/vanuatu.htm
No
228
Granek, E.F. and M.A. Brown. 2005. Co-Management Approach to Marine Conservation in Moheli, Comoros Islands. Conservation Biology 19: 1724–1732. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00301.x
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Many developing countries experience habitat degradation and unsustainable natural resource exploitation, with biodiversity and habitat conservation efforts often impeded by political instability and limited funding. Challenges in previous conservation efforts coupled with the current rate of marine habitat degradation and species declines warrant consideration of an innovative conservation approach. Co-management of protected areas addresses biological, cultural, economic, and political concerns and empowers communities through collaboration and integration in conservation efforts. It provides flexibility for adaptive practices to address underlying socioeconomic factors affecting conservation efforts and may compensate for limited or missing scientific data. The ecosystems of the Comoros Islands in the West Indian Ocean, a biodiversity hotspot with high endemism and diverse tropical marine habitats, are adversely affected by existing ecological, socioeconomic, and political conditions. Moh´eli Marine Park was designed to address threats to the marine environment and is a model for co-management practices. The Moh´eli Marine Park illustrates use of area-based management tools, namely marine reserves nested within a marine park, for biodiversity conservation and local fisheries management. The authors conducted a year-long evaluation of the park implementation process, including community and fisher participation. After 3 years of operation with 80% local community control, the park maintains a small staff to monitor sea turtle nesting beaches, reef health, fisheries, and uninhabited islets and to guide ecotourists and educate visitors. Analysis revealed successes and shortcomings of the co-management approach. Successes included local communities empowered to participate in natural resource management, increased local involvement in conservation initiatives, and use of traditional knowledge when scientific information was unavailable. A flexible project that incorporates local knowledge and participation as well as education and capacity building of all stakeholders is a viable approach. The Comoros example also illustrates that co-management is not immune to social issues, inadequate government law enforcement, or political instability and is an incomplete substitute for sound science. Lessons learned are applicable elsewhere and offer a template for effective scientific research and monitoring, policy making, and management of protected areas in developing nations.
Oceania
Co-management,Community Based Management,MPA,Marine Reserves
4
No
229
COFAD GmbH2002. Back to Basics: Traditional Inland Fisheries Management and Enhancement Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa and their Potential for Development.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Africa
Inland fisheries are of particular reference in the context of food security and development in Africa. This study, which argues that a better acknowledgement of traditional resource management and enhancement systems is an essential component of a more appropriate and effective approach to inland fisheries and aquaculture development. The study aims to expand our knowledge base of existing traditional fisheries management and enhancement systems and to improve our understanding of the complexities of resource utilisation. To this end, the study presents an outline of traditional fisheries management and traditional fisheries enhancement systems as well as of modern fisheries enhancement and aquaculture systems. After analysing the potentials and constraints of these systems, conclusions are drawn and formulated into recommendations. Two case studies, both undertaken in the context of this study, and a bibliography are provided as annexes. Interventions into existing resource allocation patterns and property regimes, whether by government, development assistance and/or other agencies should exert the effort necessary to understand the dimensions and the rationale of traditional resource management systems and the institutions on which they are based. Interventions designed to change and strengthen existing institutional arrangements should consider using traditional institutions as the starting point of change but is should be left to the people to decide on whether and how to integrate traditional and modern systems
Traditional Institutions,Inland Fisheries,Food Security,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
4
No
230
FERRER, E.M. And C.M.C. NOZAWA. 1998. Community-Based Coastal Resources Management in the Philippines: Key Concepts, Methods and Lessons Learned. International Development Research Centre.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
In the Philippines, coastal habitats are degraded and the resources therein depleted both directly (i.e. through destructive fishing practices) and indirectly by massive siltation from deforested upland areas and poor agricultural practices and inappropriate land use activities in coastal watersheds. Over exploitation of the coastal areas is aggravated by rapid population increase. Legal and institutional weaknesses handicap the implementation of coastal resources management projects. It is noted that the Philippines has the most comprehensive set of environmental laws in Asia, but few of these laws are adequately implemented. Most of the environmental and resource utilisation issues in the coastal zone are partly caused by non-enforcement of laws. Participatory approaches have become increasingly widespread in development programs in the past decades. In the Philippines, primary health care, communal irrigation development, integrated rural development, marketing cooperatives and communal farming systems, social forestry and until recently coastal resources management are all examples of government and non-government programs that are based on participatory approaches. The paper describes a number of coastal management initiatives that have been started in the Philippines. The last two decades have been marked by an increasing number of institutions, agencies and organisations which have focused attention on the coastal zone. Acting individually or cooperatively, these groups have evolved unique strategies for addressing the numerous management issues affecting the coastal areas in the Philippines. The various strategies and efforts may be woven into a unified approach often referred to as Community-Based Coastal Resources Management (CB-CRM). This participatory, integrated and multi-sectoral approach is fast becoming an accepted and viable approach to coastal zone management. The paper concludes with a list of lessons learned over the years in this area.
Asia
participatory approach,Community Based Management,Coastal Resources
4
No
231
Robert S. Pomeroy, Brenda M. Katon, Ingvild Harkes. 2001. Marine Policy 25: 197–208
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The purpose of this paper is to present results from the first five-year phase of a large fisheries co-management research project implemented by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) and the Institute of Fisheries Management (IFM), with national partners in Asia and Africa. More specifically, the paper will present results of conditions which affect the success of co-management as identified through the project’s research activities in Asia. The 18 conditions identified as being of high importance for success are grouped into three categories: supra-community level, community level, and individual and household level. While not a comprehensive list, these conditions are meant to serve as a guide in the planning and implementation of comanagement. The conditions must be viewed in the distinct political, biological, cultural, technological, social, and economic context of the Asian region and the individual countries. Resource management systems must be viewed in the context of the complex interactions of these characteristics that have shaped past and present situations and that have a capacity for influencing the future. These characteristics include the small-scale, subsistence-based fisheries, the local community traditions, the social and political structures, the political and economic restructuring that is occurring in the region, and the need for food security. Some of the conditions can be met by means internal to the community, while others require external assistance. The role of the external agent involves initiating a process of discovery and social learning, guiding problem solving, building local capabilities, and advocating appropriate policies. Resource users and stakeholders are largely responsible for the day-to-day management of resources, participation in consultations, design of appropriate resource management measures, and assistance in monitoring and law enforcement. Implementation is often a balancing act to meet these conditions as timing and linkages in the co-management process and arrangements are important.
Asia
Community Based Management,Stakeholders,Food Security,Co-management,ICLARM
4
No
232
Minh, Le Nguyet. 2008. Hanging in balance: benefit sharing in community-based fishery resource management in the Lower Mekong Basin. Local Environment 13: 437–448
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Collective management of resources has enjoyed a remarkable rise to prominence across resource governance, but many questions remain. What benefits are created and who are the recipients? Are these benefits and incentives sufficient to enable communities to collaborate for longer-term management? A clear conceptual framework is needed to better understand these social, economic and environmental impacts. The paper responds to this need and presents a new tool to analyse benefits and benefit-sharing within and between communities in relation to poverty reduction and conservation through two cases of community fisheries management in Lower Mekong Basin. The paper starts by drawing together current understanding of benefit-sharing and its relevance to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) before continuing with description and analysis of the two selected case studies of Savannakhet Province in Laos and Tra Vinh Province in Vietnam. The lessons from these two cases for promoting benefit-sharing by the state, market and civil society are then discussed in relation to resource governance and broader community development. The two cases show varying degrees of sophistication and success in terms of benefits’ flow and distribution. They illustrate the diversity of social settings within Lower Mekong Basin and demonstrate that the task of ensuring that there is a balance of benefit sharing in the collective resource management while at the same time expanding and replicating this model is a difficult one. Benefit-sharing analysis offers an important tool for strengthening collective management and captures all the possible and latent gains in the resource governance. Division of benefit flow and distribution allows a definite understanding of what type of interventions would be needed, by whom and where should they be placed if CBNRM were to be further promoted as a way of addressing poverty eradication and biodiversity conservation. This concept is principally helpful for NGOs and development agencies if they want to work with the state and market actors to advocate for more accountable, inclusive and equitable resource governance. The challenge remains to address and capitalise upon the diversity and complexity of the conditions influencing benefit-sharing.
Asia
Community Based Management,Benefit Sharing,Biodiversity,Conservation,Poverty
4
No
233
Hind, E.J., M.C. Hiponia, T.S. Gray. 2010. From community-based to centralised national management—A wrong turning for the governance of the marine protected area in Apo Island, Philippines? Marine Policy 3454–62
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
Before the mid-1990s, Apo Island, Philippines, was often described as one of the world’s best examples of community-based marine management. This paper studies the less-documented transition of the island during the late 1990s from community-based management to centralized national state management. The Philippines was the site of some of the earliest MPAs and it now boasts well over 300, which constitute the country’s primary tool for coastal resource management. Two formats of MPA exist in the Philippines: first is the community-based ‘sanctuary’, allowing local stakeholders to manage their own resources, empowered by the Local Government Code of 1991. The second MPA format is the centralized national model, which is a prescriptive top-down method of ensuring a ‘protected land and seascape’. Extensive interviewing of islanders has revealed deep misgivings about the centralized Regime — the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB). PAMB’s aim of implementing the National Integrated Protected Areas Systems (NIPAS) Act was initially looked upon favourably by islanders, but it has lost that support because of its exclusion of stakeholders from management and its poor Institutional performance. The paper’s conclusion is that the implementation of the NIPAS Act Highlights the limitations of top-down management, and that there is a need to restore an element of local stakeholder participation in the governance of Apo’s marine protected area (MPA). A system of co-management between community and national state actors is essential to ensure the long-term sustainability of Apo’s marine resources.
Asia
Community Based Management,Stakeholders,MPA
4
No
234
Ko, Jae-Young, Glenn A. Jones, Moon-Soo Heob, Young-Su Kang, Sang-Hyuck Kang. 2010. A fifty-year production and economic assessment of common property-based management of marine living common resources: A case study for the women divers communities in Jeju, South Korea. Marine Policy 34: 624–634
Documents and Reports
Women and Resources Management N/a
The authors examined the conditions of successful common property-based management for coastal marine living resources, using a case of historically and anthropologically well established women divers communities on Jeju Island, South Korea, focusing on their decentralized work rules and production records. Since the 1960s, their customary rights to fishing have been institutionalized by relevant national laws. However, since the 1970s, their numbers have declined under new local, national, and global challenges. Due to their tight social network and work rule, the women divers have harvested coastal marine living resources with limited fishing pressure exclusively from their village fishing grounds for over 400 years. Even though the women divers have worked together to improve the habitats for their target seaweeds and have banned the use of scuba diving equipment, their production records show that short-term economic gains play a more significant role than long-term efforts to conserve and protect their marine living resources. Thus, their harvest patterns have been mostly reactive to market prices, eventually requiring direct governmental regulations such as total allowable catch in some cases. Second, there has been limited opportunity for the women divers to understand their village fishing grounds from a scientific perspective. Integrating scientific findings into managerial decisions of the coastal ecosystem is vital for a sustainable marine ecosystem. Third, more lucrative and socially prestigious jobs have been available for women in Jeju, following nation-wide economic development, resulting in significant out-migration of the women from diving work. Fourth, the production of abalone and seaweeds has been declining, attributable to multiple factors. Most recently, the communities have been experiencing multiple challenges: their aging population, water pollution in the coastal zone, competition with cultured products and imported seafood, and expanding barren grounds. These challenges demand a multi-scale/dimensional response if the women divers communities are to keep their village fishing grounds and communities sustainable.
Asia
Property rights,Fishing Grounds,CPR,Co-management
4
No
235
Njaya, Friday. 2007. Governance Challenges for the Implementation of Fisheries Co-Management: Experiences from Malawi. International Journal of the Commons. 2: 137-153
Documents and Reports
http://www.thecommonsjournal.org
Community based management N/a
This paper reviews some key governance challenges that are experienced in the implementation of fisheries co-management programmes. Specific lessons are drawn from Malawi and, to some extent, from other southern African experiences. Governments and representative user committees are supposedly key partners in the co-management programmes. Many studies of CPR governance start from a user-group perspective and examine how resource users operate in a multitiered, embedded constellation of institutional arrangements. However, while recognizing the validity of these approaches, this paper examines more closely the role of governments in crafting co-management arrangements and creating facilitating environments for stakeholder participation. Given that the government is the dominating factor in many fishery governance arrangements, it is important to gain understanding about the specifics of its role in these processes. Many fisheries co-management arrangements in southern Africa are, however, generally consultative, and partnerships tend to be unequal. Nevertheless, there are some co-management sites where co-operative and advisory types of co-management exist. This paper asserts that effective co-management demands the creation of an enabling environment that gives power and authority to both government and resource users at community and district levels in a broader participatory management process. Strategies proposed in relation to participation and accountability include shifts from instructive to consultative forms of co-management, scaling up co-management processes and inclusiveness through decentralisation reforms, community empowerment through revenue sharing and the provision of an enabling environment for a greater level of participation by communities in decision-making processes, and the formulation of clear objectives and roles of actors at both the community and the district assembly levels. By-laws at the district authority level should be legally binding and according to which fisheries resources are considered as natural goods for the benefit of the local communities. Taxation schemes for appropriation of the resources are important for the sustainable management of fisheries resources, especially in establishing measures for the regulation of fishery related activities. Roles of specific stakeholders should be clear as their support may be crucial to the success or failure of co-management initiatives. Incentives for community participation should primarily aim at resource recovery and sustainable utilisation of the fisheries resources for improved community livelihoods and not on monetary rewards. Where fish resources are overexploited, co-management programmes should include alternative sources of income.
Africa
Community Based Management,Co-management,Government,Decentralisation
5
A different perspective
No
236
Strehlow, Harry V. 2004, and Kurt J. Peters. Community Action to Protect Fishery Resources in Nha Phu Lagoon, Vietnam. Proceedings. Deutscher Tropentag (Annual Conference on Tropical and Subtropical Agricultural and Natural Resource Management (TROPENTAG))
Documents and Reports
http://www.tropentag.de/2004/abstracts/full/384.pdf
Community based management Vietnam
Rural communities around Nha Phu Lagoon depend on coastal fishery resources for their livelihoods. The prevailing problem is that unorganized Vietnamese fishermen are watching helplessly at the vast degradation of their natural resources in which they have a substantial share. The over-exploitation of marine resources is a common and recognized problem and fishery resources protection and management is under developed. However, so far government measurements are not yet sufficient to carry out the assigned tasks. For a period of six months participatory action research following an Integrated Natural Resource Management approach was carried out by visiting 12 fishing villages around Nha Phu Lagoon. Electric fishing is still very common in Nha Phu Lagoon and was identified as one major factor in the destruction of coastal fishery resources and social structures. Electric fishing violates Article 6 according to Resolution No. 17/2003/QH11 of the National Fisheries Law. The main reasons fishermen engage in electric fishing is the low initial investment cost and that no specific knowledge is needed. In addition, electric fishing is less labor intensive and the income slightly higher than from traditional gill net fishing methods. Seven years ago electric fishing was introduced to the village of Ha Lien. Soon half of the fishermen were using this destructive fishing method. The following rapid reduction of fishery resources lead to conflicts that paralyzed the entire community until a village meeting was arranged to raise awareness and persuade fishermen to ban electric fishing. The whole community agreed to ban electric fishing and in 2002 a local ’Fishery Protection Group’ was established to control illegal electric fishing activities in the area. The local government authorized the self-formed group and 20 group members patrol and confiscate electric fishing equipment. The number of electric fishermen in the area has declined significantly. Today fishermen in Ha Lien are characterized by high awareness towards the degraded state of their natural resources and strong communal ties have formed between households.
Asia
Community Based Management,DFT,Coastal Resources,Conflicts
3
No
237
Ruddle, Kenneth. 1998. Traditional community-based coastal marine fisheries management in Viet Nam. Ocean & Coastal Management 40: 1-22
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vietnam
Despite more than a century of colonial occupation, radical political and administrative change, and more recent motorization of fleets and gear introductions, there remains in Viet Nam a still functioning tradition of local stakeholder organizations (van chai) by which marine fishing communities historically regulated the fishery and ensured mutual assistance for their membership. Such systems remain strong in many coastal communities, especially in the Central and Southern regions, largely because their moral authority and leadership is deeply rooted in and legitimated by traditional religion, expressed in the community "whale" shrine. In 1963, one such community organization, in Hinh Thuan Province of the Central Region, comprehensively documented its traditional regulations to inform future generations. That document is analyzed here, and supplemented and complemented by information from seven other marine fisheries van chai in the Central and Southern regions. A brief historical introduction and a description of the official fisheries management systems are followed by an analysis of the structure of the traditional community-based system, in terms of authority, rights, rules, monitoring, accountability, conflict resolution, and sanctions. Since in many localities substantial and fundamental aspects of the traditional van chai system continue to function, it is concluded that these traditional systems, suitably adapted to modern conditions, could enhance fisheries management at the lowest administrative levels in Viet Nam
Community Based Management,Traditional based management system
5
No
238
Alegret, Juan Luis. Co-management of resources and conflict management : the case of the Fishermen’s Confreries in Canada. International Association for the Study of Common Property Resources. 5th Annual Conference , Reinventing The Commons Session theme: Conflict and Conflict Management 24-28 May, 1995, Bodo, Norway
Documents and Reports
Community based management Spain
One of the most outstanding characteristics of the traditional fishing organizations on the Catalan littoral, the Fishermen's Confreries, has always been their capacity for handling the great majority of the conflicts which arise within their territorial limits. However, at present, with the de-centralization of power resulting from the creation of the autonomous Catalan State, this capacity for conflict management is being severely limited, although the Confreries still maintain a relevant role in the marshalling of the sector, due to the status given to them by the fact that they are public law institutions. This allows them to act alongside the State as co-managers of all fishing activity within the bounds of their respective territorial limits. In this paper an attempt is made to show both the ways in which the regimes of appropriation of resources are changing, and the ways of solving the conflicts which these changes are causing. To this end, the authors take as a reference the concepts of operative and property rights through collective election, as defined by Schlager and Ostrom, in order to see how and why, due to the changes mentioned above, a re-definition of the role of fishermen's organizations on the Catalan littoral is currently being produced, provoking an increase in the protagonism of the State to the detriment of the Confreries. To do this, the authors briefly outline some of the most significant conflicts that presently exist concerning fishing activity on the Catalan Mediterranean littoral, exposing the different arguments given by each side in order to defend their rights. Through these, they see how the concepts of resources and areas of collective appropriation are being re-defined. They then describe, for each of the conflicts chosen, the kind of solutions arrived at, and the actors who intervene in the search for these solutions, with the ultimate aim of demonstrating that, despite this apparently unfavourable situation, the Confreries continue to be the only organizations with sufficient legitimacy to deal with the majority of conflicts arising within their territorial limits, sharing with the State the greater part of the responsibility for management of resources and fishing activity
Europe
Community Organizations,Traditional Fisheries,Conflicts,Fisheries Management
3
No
239
Guillermo, Xavier Basurto. 2002. Community-Based Conservation of the Callo Dehacha Fishery by the Comcaac Indians, Sonora, Mexico. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the School Of Renewable Natural Resources in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science with a major in renewable natural resources studies In the Graduate College, The University of Arizona.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Mexico
The Seri callo de hacha (CDH) fishery provides an excellent opportunity to study these promising alternatives. This fishery is one of many Mexican small-scale fisheries unregulated by the Mexican Government. There is no federal or state mandate to regulate fishing effort in the form of season closures, restrictions on fishing gear, or minimum harvesting size. The Seri CDH fishery is managed entirely by local users. This research aimed to understand what are the most important social and ecological elements that contribute to the successful community-based management of the Seri Indians' callo de hacha (pen shell scallops) fishery. Toward this end, Seri controls over access to the fishery, as well as the integration of traditional ecological knowledge into local fishing practices were documented and analyzed. Results showed that the success of this locally managed fishery originate from a good fit between well-defined property rights, locally designed institutions, and the natural system. Outside fishers are allowed to fish in Seri waters on a regular basis, in exchange for benefits to the Seri. The integration of Seri communal worldview, fishing norms and beliefs, into local management rules, allows them to achieve low-cost monitoring and successful exclusion from their fishing grounds when necessary. Therefore, this case study suggests that absolute exclusion is not necessary to avoid overexploitation and the attainment of successful local management of coastal fishing resources. Some of the most important Seri fishing practices that might be responsible for promoting resilience and sustainable use of the callo de hacha fishery are: multi-species management, existence of no-take fishing areas, and rotation of fishing grounds.
Latin America
Community Based Management,open access,Property rights,Benefit Sharing,Scallop
4
No
240
Chakalall, Bisessar. Community-Based Management of Fishery Resources in the Caribbean. Prepared for Common Property Conference International Association of Common Property 26 - 29 September 1991. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
Documents and Reports
Community based management Caribbean
Modern fisheries management strategies, such as closed areas and seasons, quality of catch and gear restrictions, have not yielded the expected and desired results in the small islands of the Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles. Even though the commercial, nearshore, demersal and reef resources are fully exploited or overfished, little or no effort is being made to observe or enforce current management regulations. This paper examines the approach and application of community-based management as a strategy for resolving the 'commons problem' created by the open access fisheries of the Lesser Antilles. Fishing is primarily artisanal, with fishermen operating from small boats utilizing relatively simple gear consisting mainly of fish traps, handlines, trolling lines, gill nets, beach seine, trammel nets and longlines. Larger boats with highly specialized equipment are being introduced in the area through foreign vessels, mainly from Taiwan and USA, which are targeting specific species such as swordfish and tuna. Only archaeological evidence remain of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Lesser Antilles, who were exterminated by the colonialists. Thus indigenous fisheries management practices have to be rediscovered. In the relatively short history of the recent arrivals to the Caribbean, there are no records of a formal tradition of community involvement in the management of natural resources. There are examples, however, of fishermen acknowledging traditional rights to marine space and observing unwritten rules and regulations concerning conservation from other islands in the Caribbean. Attempts should be made to build on this tradition and to introduce and encourage community-based management on an experimental pilot scale basis in the Lesser Antilles. National fisheries management bodies will have to change their functions in that they will now provide advice and technical assistance to the holders of the exclusive-use rights, who will manage the resource in conjunction with the diverse interest groups of the coastal community.
Latin America
Community Based Management,Artisanal Fisheries
5
No
241
Johnson, Craig. 2000. Environmental Stress, Economic Risk and Institutional Change: Inshore Fishing and Community-Based Management in Southern Thailand. Paper prepared for the 8th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property 31 May to 4 June, Bloomington, Indiana
Documents and Reports
Community based management Thailand
This paper considers the debate on common property resources by exploring the conditions under which rural communities in Southern Thailand implemented and enforced rules of restricted access in coastal fishing. Particular emphasis is placed on the ways in which socio-economic differentiation affects the willingness and ability to bear the costs of enforcing and maintaining rules of common property. Variations in status and wealth, it is argued, have a profound impact on the extent to which individuals at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum can participate in this important socio-political activity. Because they lacked the endowments that were essential for monitoring and enforcing the enclosed fishing area, poor villagers were effectively excluded from the act of “protecting” the village, an act that carried tremendous status within the village community. This paper is based on a case study on Phuket. Around the beginning of 1995, the village of Baan Ao Lom (a pseudonym) took the rather unusual decision to restrict its local fishery from vessels using trawlers, push nets, explosives and poison. According to village accounts, access was open to any vessel that agreed to refrain from using the banned technologies. Enforcement of the CPR was exclusively dependent upon collective action from within the village community. The principal means that villagers used to enforce the ban were intimidation and deterrence. Thus, the CPR that emerged in Baan Ao Lom was remarkable for its near total lack of formal or written, pre-determined rules regulating the ways in which individuals entered, exploited and protected the fishery. A principal aim of this paper was to consider the ways in which environmental scarcities affect collective action and institutional change. The findings from Phuket provide evidence to support the notion that resource-dependent communities can institute and enforce rules of common property. In addition, they suggest a relatively strong correlation between environmental degradation and institutional change.
Asia
DFT,Community Based Management,CPR
5
Draft for comment, not citation
No
242
Hines, Ellen, Kanjana Adulyanukosol, Dave Duffus and Philip Dearden. 2005. Community Perspectives and Conservation Needs for Dugongs (Dugong dugon) Along the Andaman Coast of Thailand. Environ Manage. 36: 654-64
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The dugong is classified as vulnerable to extinction by the World Conservation Union on the basis of declines in area or extent of occupancy, habitat quality, and actual or potential levels of exploitation. In Thailand, the largest groups of dugongs are found near islands off the Andaman coast. The authors conducted a 2-year project that included dugong population and habitat assessment as well as interviews with local fishers. The results indicate declining populations of dugongs. The largest threat to dugongs is incidental catch in fishing nets. The numbers of deaths reported place the dugong population along the Andaman Sea in danger of extirpation. Other threats include seagrass destruction both from fishing and coastal development and the use of dugong parts for medicinal purposes. Villagers still show strong ties with dugongs, and the majority favor establishing more large protected areas for the species. These should arise from an integrated national dugong and seagrass conservation strategy formulated by concerned stakeholders from government, nongovernmental organizations, scientists, and local communities. The strategy needs to be both top down and bottom up in its formation to balance existing and potential uses as well as conflicts between artisanal and commercial fishers. The strategy should include the development of educational materials and enforceable regulations, as well as the designation of community-protected seagrass beds and a system of dugong sanctuaries along the Andaman coast. An integrated management plan is needed urgently, with the continued input of concerned scientists, to monitor and increase knowledge of dugong behavior and distribution.
Asia
Seagrasses,Andaman and Nicobar Is,Community Based Management,Conservation,Marine Mammal
4
No
243
Medard, Modesta and Kim Geheb. Fisheries co -management in the Tanzanian sector of Lake Victoria. No other details available
Documents and Reports
Community based management Tanzania
For a long time, the Tanzanian Fisheries Department has managed Tanzanian fisheries without incorporating other stakeholders within its management framework. On Lake Victoria, the persistent use of illegal fishing gear and other fishing malpractices have led the government to realise that the traditional 'command and control' system of fisheries management may no longer be viable. Conflicts amongst resource users and declining catches have also contributed towards the realisation that changes to managerial attitudes and policy strategies are needed within the sector. One option to consider is the inclusion of fishing communities in the management of the lake's resources. One possible vehicle for achieving this is through 'co-management', which, in part, involves giving responsibility and authority to local communities to manage their own resources. It is more a flexible means of management whereby communities tend to adjust and mature to changing situations, and allows these to be taken aboard for management consideration, enabling alternatives to be incorporated. It is a management system involving partnership between the state and communities, and hence will create legitimacy and respect between the stakeholders involved. This paper sets out to consider some of these co-managerial concepts, drawing on the results of a survey carried out on the Tanzanian shores of Lake Victoria in mid-1999. 334 fishers, 6 factory owners and 7 Fisheries Department officials were interviewed. The analysis that follows uses accepted research criteria to examine the basis for the evolution and persistence of community-level managerial institutions within this fishery. In addition, the research explores ways in which co-management might be applied to Tanzania's Lake Victoria fishery.
Africa
Community Based Management,Co-management
4
No
244
Harris, Alasdair. 2007. “To live with the Sea” Development of the Velondriake Community - Managed Protected Area Network, Southwest Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 2: 43-49
Documents and Reports
Community based management Madagascar
Madagascar’s southwest coast supports some of the largest coral reef systems in the western Indian Ocean. These reefs not only provide critical habitat to thousands of marine species but also are essential to the survival of the indigenous Vezo people who rely on healthy marine resources for food, transport, cultural identity and income. However, coastal populations are growing rapidly and international fisheries companies have begun exploiting the region’s waters through a sophisticated collection network to supply an expanding export market. In recent years local fishers have begun reporting declines in the size and number of their catches. Building on the success of a pilot marine no take zone launched three years ago in the remote fishing village of Andavadoaka, Blue Ventures Conservation (BV), Madagascar’s Institute of Marine Sciences (Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines – IHSM) and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) are now working with 21 neighbouring villages, and fisheries collection and export companies to develop a network of community - run marine and coastal protected areas that will span more than 800 km2, aiming to benefit more than 10,000 people and protect coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds and other threatened habitats along Madagascar’s southwest coast. The villages, grouped into three constituent geographic regions, have established a management committee which serves as a liaison between conservation scientists and community members, providing input and insight into all phases of conservation planning, from research activities to implementation of management plans. The management committee also selected a unifying name for the network: Velondriake, which means “to live with the Sea.” Along with protecting biodiversity and livelihoods, the network is working to increase environmental awareness among communities, expand local and national capacity for biodiversity conservation and serve as a model for other community conservation, economic development, and governance initiatives across Madagascar and elsewhere. Velondriake aims to benefit villages within the network by empowering members of the local communities as managers of their own natural resources, enabling communities to contribute directly to the development of sustainable resource management systems to support local culture and livelihoods. Additional benefits are being brought to local partner organisations and institutions through the capacity building resulting from involvement of their staff in the project and the improved availability of data, lessons learned and best practice guidelines.
Africa
Community Based Management
4
No
245
Yamamoto, Tadashi. 1995. Development of a Community-Based Fishery Management System in Japan. Marine Resource Economics. 10 : 21-34
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The development of Japan's community-based fishery management system is described. Over the past 250 years, three fishery laws were in effect. These fishery laws commonly adopted a fishing rights system as a tool for coastal fisheries management. During the feudal era until 1867, the fishing right system was used mainly to collect a fishery tax. The fishing right system established by the Old Fishery Law (1901-1947) helped to reduce conflicts between fishermen exploiting the same resources with different gears. The Current Fishery Law, enacted in 1949, has led to "Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries" by limiting its coverage to sedentary resources and non-mobile gear. At the same time, the Current Fishery Law created a system to establish coastal fishery management plans through fishing rights and licenses. These innovations have motivated fishermen to create the community-based coastal fisheries management system. Since the inception of the Current Fishery Law in 1949, the number of fishery management organizations created increased annually to a total of 1524 in 1993. In Japan the CBFM is regarded as a system of fisheries management created at the initiative of fishermen. Its activities include the management of fishery resources, effort, and grounds. A particular feature is the management of fishery resources, including conservation by establishing catch limits and propagation of fisheries through marine ranching. Japan's CBFM has been developed mainly for the coastal fisheries and partly for the offshore fisheries. There are a variety of CBFMs in operation, in terms of fish caught and fishing gear employed, reflecting the complexity of Japan's coastal and offshore fisheries. There are arguments that the success of CBFM development in Japan is due to the long history of the fishing rights system.
Asia
Community Based Management,Fishing Rights,Fisheries Management,Fisheries Resources
4
No
246
Boso, Delvene Chris Paul, and Zelda Hilly. Lessons Learned From Community-Based Adaptive Marine Resource Management In Solomon Islands. Worldfish Center.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
This brief presents a review of lessons learned and good practices in developing management plans within the context of community based resource management (CBRM) in Solomon Islands. The lessons are based on work done by the WorldFish Center, the Foundation of the Peoples of the South Pacific International (FSPI) and the Solomon Islands Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources. The document is intended to complement other initiatives in the country and through the Solomon Islands Locally Managed Marine Area Network add to lessons learned by other organizations in order to help the people and the government of the Solomon Islands meet their marine resource management goals. Key lessons include:
• Initiatives in community resource management that develop from genuine requests for participation from entire communities, have realistic expectations, secure stakeholder access to land and sea, and compensate for language barriers can successfully identify risks and threats to communities in order to guide adaptation planning and the assessment of possible supplementary livelihoods.
• Good community management institutions must be created and/or strengthened, provincial and national fishery officers should be brought on board, and research-for-development partnerships should be sealed with formal agreements and facilitated with effective communication.
• Management plans and monitoring methods should be simple and straightforward, tailored to local conditions so that they build on existing community norms and are realistic and sustainable.
• Decision-making tools and skills for adaptive community resource management enhance stakeholder capacity in general, improving community governance, cooperation and cohesion.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Resources Management,World fish
5
Lessons learnt
No
247
Milley, Chris and Anthony Charles. Mi’kmaq Fisheries in Atlantic Canada: Traditions, Legal Decisions and Community Management. Invited Paper presented at the 2001 Conference: “People and the Sea: Maritime Research in the Social Sciences: An Agenda for the 21st Century” University of Amsterdam and Netherlands Institute for the Social Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Documents and Reports
Community based management Canada
Historically, the Mi’kmaq, the indigenous people of Atlantic Canada, relied on and managed fisheries through a system based on clan groupings and natural cycles. Regulations placed on harvesting practices - including times of harvest, areas of harvesting and who would harvest - were all tied to annual migrations between fishing and hunting grounds. Decision making was not vested in the hands of a hierarchical leadership, but rather made through a consensus of all members of the community within each of seven territorial districts. However, their participation in harvesting and management has been eroded over time through treaty relationships and government policies. Today, recent court decisions upholding Mi’kmaq rights to the Atlantic Canadian fisheries are increasing Mi’kmaq involvement in fishery management. The Marshall decision, in particular, which was met by conflict between Mi’kmaq and non-native communities, offers potential for further development of local co-operation in fishery management. This paper explores the evolving state of Mi’kmaq nation-based and community-based management systems.
N. America
Fishing Grounds,Community Based Management,Fisheries Management,Traditional Management Systems
4
No
248
Unnayan Onneshan- The Innovators. 2009. Advancing Ideas and Building Constituencies for Social Transformation. Annual Report.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Bangladesh
In 2009, Unnayan Onneshan has worked on issues related to climate change, agriculture, food security, agrarian transition, budget analysis, and biodiversity in the Sundarbans, environmental displacement etc. The Ecology, Environment and Emergencies Unit has compiled two reports, which deal with the customary use of the Sundarbans’ biological resources and its related traditional cultural practices along with a policy paper on climate change. The study on Climate change and flow of environmental displacement in Bangladesh depicts environmental displacement with the premise of increased frequency of natural disasters and the adverse impacts of climate change. The project Community Based Management of the Sundarbans (CBMS) has been
running since 2005 to date funded by Forest People Programme (FPP), UK is being implemented in two upazilas of Khulna districts of Bangladesh by Unnayan
Onneshan. The CBMS project is a research based action project aimed to advocate for a new approach to managing the Sundarbans, based on the customary sustainable practices and rules of the traditional resource users and their full and effective participation in decision-making and management of this important wetland.
Asia
NGO,Community Based Management,Traditional Practice,Climate Change,Natural Disasters
1
No
249
Nielsen, Jesper Raakjaer, Poul Degnbol, K. Kuperan Viswanathan, Mahfuzuddin Ahmed, Mafaniso Hara and Nik Mustapha Raja Abdullah. 2004. Fisheries co-management — an institutional innovation? Lessons from South East Asia and Southern Africa. Marine Policy 28 151–160
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malaysia
During the last decade the co-management concept has gained increasing acceptance as a potential way forward to improve fisheries management performance. It has, however, at the same time become increasingly evident that the co-management concept is not clearly defined and means very different things to different people. In this article, we attempt to document experience available
from a recent study on fisheries co-management that has researched case studies of various implementations of co-management arrangements in coastal and freshwater fisheries in South East Asia and Southern Africa, and to present a more comprehensive understanding of co-management and to summarise the experiences with both the positive outcomes and the problems in actual implementation.
Asia,Africa
Government,Globalization,Fisheries Management,Conflicts,Community Based Management,Co-management
5
No
250
Wong, Jephrin Zefrinus, Seiichi Etoh and Arthur Besther Sujang. 2009. Towards Sustainable Community-based Fishery Resources Management: The Tagal System of Sabah, Malaysia. Fish for the People 7: 18-23
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malaysia
Sabah and Sarawak comprise East Malaysia, one of Malaysia’s two federal territories. Sabah is surrounded by the South China Sea in the west, Sulu Sea in the northeast and Celebes Sea in the east. Sabah’s fishing zones are divided into coastal (less than 12 nautical miles (n mi) from the shore line) and offshore areas (12 n mi and beyond the EEZ boundary). The EEZ of Sabah is reported to be about 90,000 km2. Being aware of the role of the coastal communities in comanaging the coastal and inland resources in the country, the DOF Malaysia has undertaken initiatives and approaches under an integrated resources management concept in order to achieve sustainable fisheries throughout the country. Specifically, the Tagal System which actually originated as a traditional system of forest stewardship was therefore adapted for the protection, restoration, conservation and management of the freshwater fishery resources of the country and most specifically in Sabah. The implementation of the Tagal System is being promoted by empowering the concerned local communities. “Tagal System”, which literally means “fishing in rivers is prohibited by the concerned communities for a certain pre-agreed period of time” aims to restore the depleting fisheries resources, keep the rivers free from pollution, and generate income to the communities concerned. Under the Tagal System however, concerned communities are still allowed to harvest fish from the rivers but in a sustainable manner. The Tagal System was developed by the Sabah State Government and the Department of Fisheries (DOF) of Sabah upon recognizing the urgent need to address the problems of depleting freshwater fishery resources as indicated in the State’s decreasing production from freshwater fisheries. Although the State did not have adequate fisheries laws for regulating inland fisheries in the past, the State Fisheries Department managed to successfully implement the Community-Based Fishery Resources Management (CBRM) concept which is now locally called the “Tagal System”.
Asia
Community Based Management
4
No
251
Johnson, Craig. 1998. Beyond Community Rights: Small-Scale Fisheries and Community-Based Management in Southern Thailand. TDRI Quarterly Review. (13): 25-31
Documents and Reports
Community based management Thailand
This article explores the ways in which government departments, non-governmental organizations and small-scale fishing communities have responded to increasing competition and conflict over natural resources in Thailand’s coastal areas. In particular, it addresses both the theoretical and practical implications of granting small-scale fishing communities the right to manage coastal resources in Southern Thailand. The primary empirical focus is Phangnga Bay, where case studies in Baan Ao Kung and Bann Para (both on Phuket) are attempting to determine the factors that encourage and prevent local communities from conserving coastal resources. The author concludes that community-based management offers a constructive way in which stakeholders and can address persistent problems within Thailand’s coastal areas. Its main problems, relate to enforcement capability and institutional design. In terms of enforcement, the notion that small-scale fishing communities can or should have the capacity to enforce territorial fishing areas is seen to be unrealistic and potentially dangerous while the notion that local communities monitoring the existing rules and appealing to local authorities when these rules are violated appears more viable.
Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Community Based Management
4
No
252
Salmi, P. and K. Muje. 2001. Local owner-based management of Finnish lake fisheries: social dimensions and power relations. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 8 : 435-442
Documents and Reports
Community based management Finland
Traditionally most inland water bodies in Finland were privately owned as an extension of land ownership. Statutory fishery associations are responsible for local decision-making on most lakes. Social dimensions have been tightly embedded in decision making by these associations. The local level of Finnish fisheries management has been subjected to a fundamental shift from locally based subsistence fishing and wide local participation in fisheries associations to a wide range of non-local recreational demands and decreasing participation. In this paper the functionality of local resource management in the Finnish context of private ownership of fishing waters is studied, with focus on the social significance of local decision-making and representation of user groups in the decision-making process. The main material consists of personal thematic interviews with a range of fishermen, decision makers and other stakeholders in two lakes.
Europe
Subsistence Fisheries,Community Based Management
4
No
253
Muje, Kari, Marko Lindroos, T.M. Marjomaki and J. Karjalainen. 2004. Interlocked sustainable use of multiple fish-stocks – modeling biological and socio-economic conditions in Finnish vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) fisheries. Ann. Zool. Fennici. 41 : 375-390.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Finland
Using economic and historical yield data models, the authors outline the socio-economic and ecological conditions for sustainable use of fish resources in commercial lake fisheries in Finland, in the context of fragmented private ownership and owner based management. Interlocked use refers to area greater than the typical current area on one or two lakes, and that could be used as a joint resource by the fishers in the area. The results of the economic model show that the management of the interlocked fishery, in particular by encouraging mobility of fishers, can produce higher sustainable economic benefits from the fishery. The yield data analysis shows that an interlocked resource may considerably decrease fluctuations of yield in commercial vendace fisheries. This implies that the interlocked use approach would increase the cost effectiveness and decrease the interannual variability in income to the fishers, thus promoting sustainability in the fishery and making it potentially a more viable livelihood in rural areas.
Europe
Co-management,Lake Fisheries,Community Based Management
4
No
254
Vetemaa, M ., V . Vaino, T. Saat and S. Kuldin. 2001. Co-operative fisheries management of the cross border Lake Peipsi-Pihkva. Fisheries Management and Ecology, (8): 443-451
Documents and Reports
Community based management Estonia
This paper focuses on the management and socio-economic principles for allocation of the commercial fish resources of Lake Peipsi-Pihkva. The fish resources of this cross border lake are very important both for Russia and Estonia. Recent changes in the Estonian and Russian economies, and the appearance of the state border dividing the lake, have resulted in deep changes in economic, social and legal issues related to the fishery. As the lake is now an international waterbody, the Intergovernmental Estonian-Russian Fishery Commission (ERFC) agreed for co-operative management measures annually from 1994. The ERFC is responsible for all general decisions on management strategies and technical measures used in fishery management. The stocks of most commercial fish species in Lake Peipsi-Pihkva are still abundant, and the economic status of the fishermen is relatively good. It may be concluded that co-operative management of the Lake Peipsi-Pihkva fisheries have been successful.
Europe
Co-management,Lake Fisheries
4
No
255
Johannes, R.E. 1998., Government-supported, village-based management of marine resources in Vanuatu. Ocean & Coastal Management 40 165186
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vanuatu
The Fisheries Department of Vanuatu catalyzed a striking upsurge in tradition-based marine resource management in fishing villages in the early 1990s. Of 26 villages surveyed, only one had not introduced new village-based marine resource management measures between 1990 and late 1993. Although government assistance and advice in this connection covered only one species, trochus, the success of conservation measures for it prompted villagers to introduce controls over fishing for many other species of fish and invertebrates. Vanuatu’s experience yields many lessons for initiating effective, inexpensive, government-assisted, village-based marine resource management. It also reveals how a local shoestring operation can have much greater success that a fisheries development project costing tens of millions of dollars.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Traditional Management
4
No
256
King, M. And U. Faasili. 1999. Community-based management of subsistence fisheries in Samoa. Fisheries Management and Ecology, (6):133-144
Documents and Reports
Community based management Samoa
Much subsistence fishing in tropical regions is based in discrete communities which have a high level of marine awareness and some degree of control of adjacent waters. These factors provide an ideal basis on which to motivate communities to manage their own marine resources. A fisheries extension programme in Samoa encouraged each village community to define its key problems, discuss causes, propose solutions and take appropriate actions. Various village groups, including women's and untitled men's groups, provided information which was recorded (as problem/solution trees) on portable white-boards. The extension process culminated in a community-owned Fisheries Management Plan which listed the resource management and conservation undertakings of the community. Undertakings ranged from enforcing laws banning destructive fishing methods to protecting critical marine habitats. Within the first 2 years, the extension process commenced in 65 villages, of which 44 have produced Village Fisheries Management Plans to date. A large number (38) of these villages chose to establish community-owned Marine Protected Areas.
Oceania
MPA,DFT,Subsistence Fisheries
4
No
257
Johannes, R.E., The Renaissance of Community-Based Marine Resource Management in Oceania, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. (33) 2002:317–40 doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150524
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Twenty-five years ago, the centuries-old Pacific Island practice of community-based marine resource management (CBMRM) was in decline, the victim of various impacts of westernization. During the past two decades, however, this decline has reversed in various island countries. Today CBMRM continues to grow, refuting the claim that traditional non-Western attitudes toward nature cannot provide a sound foundation for contemporary natural resource management. Limited entry, marine protected areas, closed areas, closed seasons, and restrictions on damaging or overly efficient fishing methods are some of the methods being used. Factors contributing to the upsurge include a growing perception of scarcity, the restrengthening of traditional village-based authority and marine tenure by means of legal recognition and government support, better conservation education, and increasingly effective assistance, and advice from regional and national governments and NGOs. Today’s CBMRM is thus a form of cooperative management, but one in which the community still makes and acts upon most of the management decisions.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Tenure and Use,Traditional Management,MPA,Closed Area,Closed seasons,DFT
4
No
258
Atonio P Mulipola. 1999. Community-based Marine Protected Areas in Samoa. (A Country Report prepared for the Polynesia Sub-regional Workshop on Community-based Marine Protected Areas.). 15-19, Tahiti
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
A number of reports say that shellfish and fish have been over-fished and drastically declining in the lagoon and inshore reefs of Samoa for many years. Additionally, the marine environment is also under extreme pressure, principally from coastal developments (coastal and mangrove reclamation, seawall and road constructions etc.) and agriculture uses (erosion from poor land use, deforestation, heavy uses of agrochemicals etc.). The decline in fish stocks is of particular concern in coastal communities where subsistence catches of seafood provided traditional and valuable sources of protein. Despite concerns of declining stocks, government actions and national laws (i.e. Fisheries Act 1988, Fisheries Regulations 1998, etc.) to remedy the problem has never been successful. However, Fisheries Division and AUSAID support initiated a Fisheries Village Extension Programme in 1995 in an effort to further address the major problem of fisheries reduction. The programme is a community-based fisheries approach whereby each village accepting the extension program was encourage to analyse its fishing practices and develop a community owned plan with undertakings to introduce appropriate village laws and pursue other conservation measures. Reciprocally, the FD supported the development of optional sources of seafood. Through the supported programme, village communities decided on many different undertakings, ranging from enforcing laws banning destructive fishing methods to protecting part and critical part of their fishing ground (MPA). This report details the community extension process and current conservation and management strategies as well as benefits and constraints of MPAs. Through the supported programme, village communities decided on many different undertakings, ranging from enforcing laws banning destructive fishing methods to protecting part and critical part of their fishing ground (MPA). This report details the community extension process and current conservation and management strategies as well as benefits and constraints of MPAs.
Oceania
Traditional Management,MPA,Lagoon,DFT,Community Based Management
4
No
259
Castilla, J. Carlos and S. 2008. Gelcich. Management of the loco (Concholepas concholepas) as a driver for self-governance of small scale benthic fisheries in Chile. Case studies on fisheries self-governance. P441-451 in Townsend, R.; Shotton, R.; Uchida, H. (eds). Case studies in fisheries self-governance. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 504. Rome, FAO.
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1497e/a1497e38.pdf
Community based management Chile
In Chile, due to the social and economic importance of artisanal benthic shellfisheries, there has been a strong political desire to achieve sustainable exploitation in these fisheries. The 1991 Chilean Fishery and Aquaculture Law that regulated access to benthic and pelagic coastal resources by the artisanal fisher sub-sector incorporated new regulations that affect their user rights through three management steps: (a) Exclusive fishery access rights within a zone that extends to 5 nautical miles from the shoreline along around 2 500 km of coast are assigned to artisanal fishers; (b) artisanal fishers are restricted to working (diving, finfishery) within the coastal region adjacent to their area of residence (regionalization); and (c), the allocation of exclusive harvesting rights for benthic resources to legally registered artisanal small-scale fishing associations, under what was defined as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). Through this policy, the Undersecretary of Fisheries allocates territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFS) to artisanal registered associations. This includes the right to exclude non-members of fisher associations from exploiting the seabed area of MEABRs. The rationale behind TURFS is based on a common property approach which proposes that property rights will create institutional arrangements among fishers, who will then manage, collectively harvest and sustain the resources. In this document, the authors highlight the importance of the gastropod Concholepas concholepas (loco), the cornerstone species that drove legislation on MEABRs as well as the role of this policy to achieve wider fishery objectives and generate incentives and conditions for self-governance.
Latin America
Shellfish,Governance,Community Based Management,Benthic Fisheries
5
No
260
Townsend, R.; Shotton, R.; Uchida, H. 2008. (eds). Case studies in fisheries self-governance. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 504. Rome, FAO.. 451p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1497e/a1497e00.htm
Community based management N/a
This FAO Fisheries Technical Paper documents 32 case studies and four syntheses (Canada, Japan, New Zealand and the United States of America) on the role of industry in the governance and management of fisheries. The studies are drawn from ongoing practice in Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia. The types of fisheries cover those for crustaceans, fish, molluscs and echinoderms. In general the scale of the fisheries tends to be small, which has been one of the reasons attributed to their success. In all but one case it is clear that well-defined fishery rights have contributed to the success of the programmes though the initiative for development and adoption of the programmes covers a range of institutional causes. The case studies are intended to inform and provide potential models that may be used in other fisheries.
N. America,Australia/Oceania,Asia
Small Scale Fisheries,Rights,Community Based Management
5
I have not downloaded this document but feel it is useful. At least one of the case studies is separately included in this list
No
261
Maiken Bjorkan. 2009. Putting MPAs to work: A Mexican Case Study on Community Empowerment. MAST, 8: 11-31
Community based management Mexico
There are increasing pressures on the coastal zone on a global basis. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are employed in order to soften pressures on coastal environmental integrity. As a result, the establishment of MPAs usually encounters opposition locally. This is so since softening the pressure typically means reduced access to and use of the given area, which can have great impact on local communities. The case study presented here is an exception to this general rule. Drawing on empirical data from Yucatan, Mexico, the author shows how a small fishing community managed to create an MPA for local purposes. Like most coastal communities in the region, the village depends on fisheries for both subsistence and commerce. In order to protect their interests, increasingly under pressure from overexploitation, immigration and hurricanes, the villagers turned to the global environmental discourse and to the MPA. Here, the author demonstrates how the MPA in the village in his case study was used to empower fishers and their communities, and how the global discourse on environmental protection and biodiversity was made to work for local interests.
Latin America
Community Based Management,MPA,Protected Areas
4
No
262
Cinner, Joshua E. and Shankar Aswani. Integrating customary management into marine conservation. Biological Conservation, 140 (2007 ): 201–216
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
In many parts of the world, there is increasing interest among scientists, managers, and communities in merging long-enduring customary practices such as taboos that limit resource use with contemporary resource management initiatives. Here, the authors synthesize the literature on the customary management of coral reefs emerging from diverse disciplines including anthropology, common property economics, and ecology. First, they review various customary management strategies and draw parallels with Western fisheries management. Secondly, they examine customary resource management and conservation. They argue that, while resource conservation often appears to be an unintended by-product of other social processes, customary management can, in fact, conserve marine resources. In the third section, they examine the resilience of customary management institutions to socioeconomic transformations. They suggest that in conditions of high population and commercialization of marine resources, property rights may become strengthened but arrangements that rely on self-restraint become weakened. Finally, they examine the commensurability of customary management and conservation. They emphasize that practical and conceptual differences exist between customary management and contemporary conservation which have often led to failed attempts to hybridize these systems. However, when these differences are understood and acknowledged there exists a potential to develop adaptive management systems that are: (1) highly flexible; (2) able to conserve resources, and; (3) able to meet community goals. In each section, the authors provide research priorities and conclude conclude by developing six key features of successful hybrid management systems.
World
Community Based Management,Adaptive management,Traditional Management,Property rights
5
Review article
No
263
Anna Tiraa, Ra’ui in the Cook Islands – today’s context in Rarotonga. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin #19 – April 2006
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cook Islands
The Cook Islands in the South Pacific stretch from Samoa to the West and French Polynesia to the east. The major income earners for the Cook Islands are tourism, black pearls, fishing, agriculture and offshore banking. The Environment Act 2003 provides national legislation for the protection, conservation and management of the environment in a sustainable manner. currently applies to Rarotonga, Aitutaki and Atiu. For islands not covered
by the Act, the island council is the main body with the authority to enact protected areas (PA) under the Local Body Act. Of these, only Rakahanga and Pukapuka have developed specific by-laws to establish and manage ra’ui, though there are intentions to do so for other islands. A ra’ui was imposed by the chief of the tribe or the head of the landowning lineage to control the use of resources or facilities. This paper deals with the evolution and current status of ra’ui.
Community Based Management,Traditional Management
4
No
264
Dey, Madan M. and Usha Kanagaratnam. Community based management of small scale fisheries in Asia: Bridging the gap between fish supply and demand. Conference Paper 23, WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Bangladesh
Production from capture fisheries saw rapid, sustained growth from the 1950s through the 1970s, but by 1990s global capture fisheries has become stagnant, warranting a sustainable approach to its exploitation. With capture
fisheries stalling and demand for fish growing, many countries turned towards developing the aquaculture sector to meet the supply gap. Over the decade, the expansion of aquaculture has led to a rapid growth in fish production. However, as aquaculture expands its production, its use of capture fisheries as food for farmed fish will increase, taking count that currently nearly one-third of the world’s wild caught fish is consumed as fish feed. As aquaculture in the developing world continues to exhibit steady growth in production, sustainability of this trend is now open to question given the rapid degradation of the capture fisheries. Establishing community organizations for managing fisheries is a promising means of improving the resource condition, particularly for countries with large inland and seasonal floodplains. However, as the paper outlines, this arrangement should not reduce the role of the government, but emphasizes on delivering net benefits. Also it is necessary to set up legal framework for community based management as to ensure and sustain community participation in fisheries management.
Asia
Community Based Management,Aquaculture,Inland Fisheries,Capture Fisheries
4
No
265
Eilert, H.E.W. 2002/10., editor. 2002. Interactive mechanisms for small-scale fisheries management: Report of the regional consultation. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP Publication, 153 pp.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
The “Regional consultation on interactive mechanisms for small-scale fisheries management” was initiated by FAO and co-organized by the Coastal Development Centre, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. The Consultation The consultation discussed issues concerning small-scale fisheries management based on experiences at both national and regional levels. To overcome various constraints encountered, the consultation developed an interactive plan to implement decentralized small-scale fisheries management. The plan is divided into three phases and describes in a matrix constraints and identified solutions in implementing small-scale fisheries management for six identified areas, namely Organization, Content/substance, Legal, Support, Training and Process. This interactive plan is designed for the needs of fisheries managers at different political levels, non-governmental organizations and others working in the field of small-scale fisheries management.
Asia
Reservoir Fisheries,EbA,Community Based Management,Cambodia
5
No
266
Ruddle, Kenneth. 1994. A guide to the literature on community-based fishery management in the Asia-Pacific tropics. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 869. Rome, FAO.. 114p.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Bangladesh
This Circular is a guide to the literature on traditional fisheries management systems in the Asia-Pacific tropics. The introductory section discusses the geographical distributions of such systems, their principal characteristics including authority, rights, rules, and monitoring, accountability and enforcement. It notes that information on these systems is fragmentary and much remains anecdotal and unsynthesized. It calls for greater research efforts on these systems and highlights some major research issues including the nature of management boundaries and the traditional ecological knowledge base. The main body of the Circular provides, on a country by country basis, a summary of the present knowledge on traditional management systems of marine and estuarine fisheries in the Asia-Pacific tropics based on the literature available to the author.
Central America
Traditional Knowledge,Polynesia,New Caledonia,Micronesia,Fisheries Management
5
A very important comprehensive review
No
267
Haribon Foundation, 2005. Atlas of Community-Based Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines. Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, Quezon City, and Pamana Ka Sa Pilipinas, Cebu City, Philippines. 533p
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
This book is about Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) identified by various names such as marine reserves, fish sanctuaries, marine sanctuaries, etc located in various parts of the country and managed or co-managed primarily by fisher communities and people’s organizations (Pos). The book deals with the social component of marine and coastal resources management (CRM) including mode of local community management of MPAs, their historical development and their physical and biological features. Fifty five MPAs are described in this book. Community management of natural resources, particularly agricultural resources, first became popular in the Central Visayas in the early 1970s. This concept found application to conservation and management of coastal ad marine resources in the mid 1970s through the early 1980s. The decades of the 1990s and 2000s saw the proliferation of community based MPAs and their integration to the larger concept of integrated coastal resources management (ICRM) in the country. The atlas highlights the distinction and importance of community-based MPAs in coastal resources management. The atlas calls that CBMPA remains consistent with CBCRM by continuing to benefit the local poor and to learn from their experiences in CBMPA on the ground. The first four chapters deal with the Philippine coastal and marine environment, and the concepts about community based marine protected areas as well as a review of their status. Chapter 6 deals with Luzon Pamana marine sanctuary member sites, Chapter 7 with Visayas Pamana marine sanctuary member sites and Chapter 8 with Mindanao Pamana marine sanctuary member sites.
Asia
MPA,Community Based Management
5
No
268
Yamao, Masahira and Phattareeya Suanrattanachai (Eds) 2002 . Background and project proposal of locally based coastal resources management in Pathew District, Chumporn province. (LBCRM-PD No. 2. SEAFDEC and Department of Fisheries, Thailand.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Thailand
This volume contains the basic information on the collaborative project between SEAFDEC/Training department (TD) and the Department of Fisheries (DOF) in Thailand. The content of this volume is divided into two parts. The first describes the background of the LBCRM-PD and the detailed outline of the five-year project proposal. The second part contains the project proposal which was approved by the Director General of the DOF and the Chief of the Training Department/SEAFDEC. In the first part of the document, the sequence and tentative plan for a “Locally Based Coastal Resource Management (LBCRM)” framework is proposed and discussed.
Asia
Projects,Community Based Management,Action plan,SEAFDEC
3
No
269
Saigal, Sushil. 2000.. Does Community-Based Conservation Make Economic Sense? Lessons from India. Community-Based Conservation in South Asia: No. 8. Kalpavriksh and International Institute of Environment and Development.
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
The paper is mainly based on the experience with the Joint Forest Management (JFM) approach in India over the past decade, which is perhaps the most significant (and most well documented) CBC initiative in the country in terms of scale and experience. The paper is based on a literature survey and draws extensively n the JFM case studies. The remaining paper is divided into six main sections. The first section provides a brief overview of the main CBC initiatives undertaken in India during the past few decades. The second section explores the appropriateness of looking at the economic impacts of the programme from the perspective of the local community. The third section deals with the major benefits and costs of such a programme mainly from the perspectives of the local community. The fourth section describes some of the broader policies that impinge on the programme. The fifth section explores some equity questions while the last section lists some economic methods and tools that could be used for assessing the programme.
Asia
Community Based Management
4
No
270
Kalpavriksh and IIED. Source Book on Community-Based Conservation in South Asia: People, Policies and Publications. Community Based Conservation in South Asia: No. 10. 2000 Compiled by Farhad Vania, Neema Pathak, Ashish Kothari and Tejaswini Apte. Series Editors: Ashish Kothari and Neema Pathak
Documents and Reports
Community based management South east Asia
The objective of this document is to contribute towards creating a network of people and organizations working on CBC by providing a source of academic, practical and legal information for researchers, activists, officials and NGOs. The Resource Guide is divided into three sections. Within each section, each country in the South Asian region is dealt with separately. The first section consists of a listing of people and organisations in South Asia involved in work related to Community Based Conservation (CBC). The second section contains an extensive bibliography of references related to CBC in South Asia, including relevant laws and policies of the region. The final section contains brief descriptions of the salient features the laws and policies listed in the bibliography.
Asia
Policy,Legislation,Community Based Management
4
Resource handbook
No
271
CBCRM Resource Center/CBNRM Learning Center, Inc. Regional Workshop on Governance in CBCRM: Experiences and Lessons in Participation. 2004
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
A workshop was organised in March 2004 to draw lessons in community participation in the governance of coastal resources and to identify options to improve current practice. The workshop went through the following sequence of activities/topics. First was a levelling off among the participants on the governance concepts in CBCRM. This was followed by activities that looked at different issues and challenges affecting community participation in governance/coastal resource management. The sets of issues were classified into four main areas: institutional arrangements, policy and legislation, enforcement and tenure/ community property rights. Lessons were drawn from the different experiences and summarized into a discussion on empowering communities to participate. Possible ways of addressing the issues and challenges were identified at the end of the workshop.
Asia
Vietnam,Property rights,Philippines,Institutions,Governance,Community Management,Community Based Management,Coastal Management
5
No
272
Gupta, Dipankar Das. 2007. Community Based Preparedness, Prevention and Mitigation: Sustainable Approaches. Issue 08, August 2006. Sangamam, TNTRC. Reprinted in Development Digest-17, CED.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Nations across the globe are now committed to minimize the effects of natural disasters on communities with the ultimate goal of keeping hazards from becoming disasters. There is a gradual but slow acceptance of the need to reduce the overemphasis on relief and reconstruction and have an increasing focus on prevention, preparedness, early response and mitigation. Involvement and participation of the local communities in disaster reduction programmes receives the highest priority as they are affected by a disaster and are also the first responders. Community based disaster management covers a broad range of interventions, that includes measures, activities, projects, and necessary policy changes that focuses on disaster risk reduction that is designed by the communities at risk and is based on their needs and capacities. Community based organisations, groups, volunteers; people’s representatives at the village /GP level are the key to mobilize their communities. The results of community based approaches to disaster mitigation are vulnerability reduction solutions which are more relevant and in tune with what people need and want.
Asia
NGO,Community Based Management,Community Organizations,Disaster,Disaster management
3
No
273
Fisheries Management in Community Based Coastal Resource Management Volume 1. Oxfam Great Britain and the CBCRM Resource Center, May 2003
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This resource book (Volume 1) puts together a rich exchange and sharing of lessons from implementing fisheries management. The first chapter is on defining and situating fisheries management from a CBCRM perspective. It differentiates between a management unit and a management body; between fishery resources and coastal resources and the various fisheries management tools. This is followed by outlining the major processes in setting up fisheries management and also captures learnings from the workshop groups. Strategies and tools for fisheries management are discussed in detail. These chapters are followed by case studies that talk about actual ground realties of the various activities.
Asia
Resources Management,Participatory Management,Fisheries Resources,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Coastal Resources
5
Very useful resource, down to earth
No
274
Kerans, Patrick and John Kearney. 2006. Turning the World Right-Side Up: Science, Community and Democracy. Fenwood Publishing, Halifax.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The focus of this book is on the un-sustainability of the system that economists, in the name of science, have foisted upon society. Corporations and the economists who act as their apologists, say the authors, are the cultural driving force in contemporary society. They are reductionists: they are locked into a single-minded pursuit of one narrow facet of human well-being. Framing their study within an analysis of contemporary neoliberalism, the authors explore new directions leading to a broad grassroots based democracy. Kerans and Kearney argue that the decline of democracy is rooted in the rule of experts and the domination of scientific reductionism. They seek a new cultural diversity and point out that it is in communities and neighbourhoods at the grassroots where the knowledge for a new world is located. The authors outline an alternative vision for society where people democratically participate in the decision-making and policy formation that affect their lives.
World
Decision Making,Democracy
3
No
275
Kurien, John. Factoring social and cultural dimensions into food and livelihood security issues of marine fisheries: A case study of Kerala state, India. Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, India. Working Paper No. 299.
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
Some of the social and cultural aspects of marine fishing communities, as they emerge in the course of the pursuit for food and livelihood, are the subjects of this paper. The focus is on the marine fishery of Kerala State, India and attempts to show how these dimensions evolved in the context of very specific resource and ecological determinants. Social and cultural dimensions have been often considered a drag on the transformation of societies into modern entities. However the numerous failures encountered when development is given an exclusive techno-economic orientation, provided the basis for anew search to give meaning to hitherto neglected socio-cultural norms. This search is all the more relevant in this era of globalization that set into momentum the tendency to homogenize social and cultural specificity. The sustainability of any society will depend in large measure on the degree of diversity and self-reliance that it is able to maintain with regard to reproducing its social and cultural concomitants. At the core of this are issues pertaining to the food and livelihood security of its people. The paper examines the visible manifestations of deeper social and cultural attributes in the marine fishery sector which have been fashioned over a very long history. The list includes: the nature of the sharing patterns in the fishery; traditional knowledge and technology; the old and new institutional arrangements in fishing communities; fish and the question of food security; and the role of women.
Asia
Women,Traditional Knowledge,Livelihood,Institutions,Food Security,Fishing Communities,Community Based Management
5
No
276
Kurien, John. 2010. Negotiating fisheries co-management in Aceh province, Indonesia: Notes on process. OSRO/INS/601/ARC FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE PROJECT.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
The FAO/UN with the financial assistance of the American Red Cross implemented a fisheries and aquaculture project in Aceh province of Indonesia between 2007 and 2010. The focus of this project was on capacity building initiatives for a wide range of stakeholders involved in the sector. The aim was to facilitate the creation of a mindset which would be conducive for moving towards sustainable and responsible marine fishery and aquaculture projects. One of the components of this project aimed at instituting co-management arrangements in the coastal fisheries of four districts of Aceh which were the worst affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The document contains a compilation of notes about the process of negotiating fisheries co-management arrangements, an attempt to reflect on “how we did it” and what the approaches in doing so were. The first note provides a brief summary of the strategy adopted and how it was implemented with respect to the three primary stakeholders involved in the co-management initiative – the coastal community, the fisher organisation and the fisheries department. The next three notes are a more detailed elaboration of the way in which each of the three stakeholder groups were engaged in the process of negotiating the co-management arrangements. The fifth note discusses briefly the role of women and the last one provides a list of reflections.
Asia
Aquaculture,Fisheries,Stakeholders,Co-management,Tsunami,Community Based Management
5
No
277
Tongkul, Felix. Traditional Systems of Indigenous Peoples of Sabah, Malysia: Wisdom accumulated through the generations. Pacos Trust, Malaysia. 2002, reprinted 2007.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Malaysia
The indigenous people of Sabah have a rich oral tradition on knowledge systems related to all aspects of community life. Adat (custom) passed on from generation to generation provides guidelines for peaceful and harmonious coexistence between members of a community and their environment. The principles and concepts behind the traditional knowledge systems can contribute to present socio-cultural and economic-political systems in maintaining the well-being of humanity and conservation of the natural environment. This book is a first attempt to document what is known of Sabah’s indigenous peoples traditional systems. The book is primarily based on reports of community workshops organized by PACOS for five years from 1997.The book starts with a brief description of Sabah followed by the different indigenous systems. Specifically with reference to resource management, it is localized, holistic and integrated in nature. With respect to fish, when their number is on the decline, a communal understanding can be proclaimed by marking a no-take zone for a certain period of time.
Asia
No-take Zones,Traditional Knowledge,Indigenous Knowledge,Community Based Management,Fisheries Resources
3
General indigenous knowledge in Sabah
No
278
Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Governance as key for effective and equitable protected area systems. Briefing Note 8 February 2008.
Documents and Reports
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/governance_of_protected_areas_for_cbd_pow_briefing_note_08_1.pdf
Community based management N/a
In many events of Conservation related organizations, the concept and practice of “governance” were recognized as centrally important. “Governance” is recognised as having a major influence on the achievement of protected areas objectives (effectiveness), the sharing of relevant responsibilities, rights, costs and benefits (equity), the generation and sustenance of community, political and financial support (viability) and the application of a wise mix of scientific and traditional knowledge and skills for sustainable use (sustainability). Furthermore, paying attention to governance helps to link protected areas within their broader land and waterscapes, promoting ecological integrity within a supporting environment rather than creating isolated “islands” of conservation. The CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoW) highlights governance throughout its formulation and in particular in its element 2— Governance, Participation, Equity and Benefit Sharing, calling the Parties to the Convention to achieve measurable targets by 2012 or earlier. In this briefing note, the PoW along with the relevant concepts summarized in the text have been provided. Examples of community conserved areas around the world are also provided.
World
Community Based Management,Benefit Sharing,Conservation,CCA,Equity
4
No
279
Bio-cultural diversity conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities – examples and analysis. Companion document to IUCN/CEESP Briefing note No. 10, 2010.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
Although their existence is as old and widespread as human civilisation itself, ICCAs have emerged only recently as a major phenomenon in formal conservation circles. International policies and programmes, notably those of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), encourage today all countries to recognise and support ICCAs as examples of effective governance of bio-cultural diversity. It is clear, however, that such recognition and support need to be carefully tailored, and cannot be improvised. IUCN/CEESP’s Briefing Note no.10 and this document of complementary resources offer advice about that, addressing governments, civil society organizations, indigenous peoples and local communities engaged in collaboration, support and joint learning about ICCAs. ICCAs are defined by the IUCN as “natural and/or modified ecosystems, containing significant biodiversity values, ecological benefits and cultural values, voluntarily conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities, both sedentary and mobile, through customary laws or other effective means”. This document describes important features that identify ICCAs which indicate that ICCAs are a subset of the areas and territories globally used and controlled by indigenous peoples and local communities, but a subset crucial for them and their culture, and for conservation. A diversity of traditional and modern institutions and rules govern ICCAs and there is variety in their motivations and objectives. The element of vulnerability is because state governments may not be comfortable dealing with unique institutions that may not fit a country’s current laws and procedural requirements. Many ICCAs qualify as protected areas (PAs), as defined in the CBD PoWPA or by the IUCN. ICCAs are not always or necessarily recognised as part of national protected area systems by the relevant government authorities or communities. Some communities prefer to maintain their ICCAs without any official PA status. Others believe that such recognition would prevent or mitigate a variety of threats and mobilise needed support. Marine / coastal ICCAs from Japan, Thailand, Madagascar, Philippines and Melanesia are given as examples.
World
Traditional Management Systems,Traditional Knowledge,Traditional Communities,MPA,IUCN,Indigenous People,Indigenous Knowledge,Community Based Management
5
No
280
Sopheap, Ken, Ros Chhorvovorn, Tit Phearak, Hoeun Honey and Nouv Buntha. Sustainable Livelihoods in Anlong Raing Community Fishery. A Case Study. CBNRM Initiative/WWF
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
Anlong Raing is a floating village within the inundated forest of the Tonle Sap Great Lake. The village is right in natural resources and the biodiversity enables flora and fauna such as fish, mammals and reptiles to survive and multiply. Villagers live on floating houses, which they move according to the changing water level. From 1987 to 2001, a number of destructive fishing activities were committed by people from outside the village. At the same time, some villagers cut the flooded forest to sell the timber so as to meet their family’s daily needs. The destruction of the flooded forest destroyed the natural resources and caused further reduction of the fisheries resources. The customary livelihood of the local people was no longer sustainable. Recognising the decline in fisheries resources in the area, the Cambodian Family Development Service (CFDS) cooperated with the Provincial Fishery Office to establish the community fishery in 2002. After the establishment of community fisheries, people have more understanding regarding the importance and benefits of natural resources. They actively participate in efforts to effectively conserve, protect, manage and use resources through the Capacity Building Programme and the Natural Resources Management Programme which were formulated by CFDS and competent institutions. Fisheries crime has decreased, and a programme to create secondary business activities has supported the livelihood of villagers in a sustainable way. The villagers consider the community fisheries as very important because it helps to improve their daily living conditions and provides support for the establishment and enhancement of complementary business activities. Now it can be noticed that there is a positive change among the villagers.
Asia
Natural Resource Management,Community Based Management,Capacity Building,Livelihood,Fisheries,DFT
4
No
281
Pagdilao, Cesario R., Bernardita P. Germano, Glenn M. Ricci and Ester C. Zaragoza. Institutional Frameworks for Community-based Coastal Resources Management and Marine Conservation in the Eastern Visayas Region. Proceedings of a Workshop, October 2002. CRC Coastal Management Report #2237. PCAMRD Book Series No. 36. ISBN#1-885454-46-5.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
The Workshop, Institutional Frameworks for Community-based Coastal Resources Management and Marine Conservation in the Eastern Visayas Region had the following objectives: Review the current situation in the Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) concerning coastal resource management (CRM) and marine conservation activities, projects and programmes; Discuss an emerging institutional framework at the provincial level, and the need for such a framework at the provincial and regional levels, to support community based coastal resources management (CB-CRM) and marine conservation at the community level; Identify institutional development needs and make recommendations concerning how to build institutional capacity in the region to support CB-CRM and marine conservation. The volume has a background paper on provincial and regional institutions in the Philippines followed by coastal overview of the region including the various accomplishments through the Regional CRM plan from 1997-2007. There is a chapter on the Philippines and Indonesian experience with provincial coastal resources management and the development of a provincial CRM framework in the Eastern Visayas region followed by a set of recommendations for action.
Asia
Institutions,Community Based Management,Capacity Building
5
No
282
GEF. Experiences from SGP: Protecting International Waters Through Climate Resilient and Community-Based Actions. May 2010
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This report highlights the successes of the GEF Small Grants Programme in the international waters focal area. Special emphasis has been placed on the global benefits provided by international waters management and adaptive management techniques. It offers a community- based approach in international waters management that generates not only global environmental benefits but also increases adaptive capacity for communities and ecological systems and building resilience to climate change. The publication provides a snapshot of successes pulled from the nearly 600 projects in the SGP international waters portfolio. This publication assesses the impact of climatic variability and change on various waterbody types including rivers, regional seas, lakes and inland seas. From the study of the portfolio, it is clear that international waters resource management approaches and tools that are environmentally sound and sustainable can also be utilised as adaptive management mechanisms with intended or unintended adaptation benefits demonstrated by case studies taken from a variety of geographical areas.
World
Resources Management,Community Based Management,Climate Change,Adaptive management
4
No
283
Kabir, Iqbal. The Legal Background to Community Based Fisheries Management in Bangladesh. Worldfish, BELA and The Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh. undated
Documents and Reports
Community based management Bangladesh
This booklet aims to summarize the legal knowledge and experiences built up and challenges faced during the five years of second phase of the Community Based Fisheries Management Project (CBFM-2) implementation. The two basic legal documents on which CBFM-2 is premised include the Memorandum of Understanding signed between the Ministry of Land and the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock and also the Memorandum of Agreement between the Department of Fisheries, Worldfish Centre and the partner NGOs. During the implementation phase, various CBFM-2 components faced challenges which required legal interventions. The document also gives a list of legal and policy interventions that are required during CBFM type initiatives to ensure sustainability of interventions.
Asia
Community Based Management,Legislation,Policy
4
Useful to have such documents for other countries
No
284
Sokunthea, Seung, Heng Ponley, Yeum Lam and Cheum Sarik. 2004. Action Planning of Boeung Chunlen Reservoir community fishery: A case study. CBNRM Initiative/WWF.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
Boeung Chunlen reservoir is located in Boeung Chunlen village, approximately 30 km from Pnom Penh. Five villages surround the reservoir forming the community fisheries. The different groups involved at the local level participated in the development of community regulations, workplan, formation of the patrol team form, protecting the conservation area, capacity building etc. This case study presents the importance of participation from all stakeholders in the implementation of the project. Recommendations coming from the case study include: Local authority should closely collaborate with the community to suppress illegal fishing; Find out means to enable the community to make its own income which can be used for development purposes; there should be an incentive for the community committee and members for their active involvement and smooth operation and there facilitator should build tryst and closeness with villagers and community to share experiences about different types of work.
Asia
Stakeholders,Illegal Fishing,Participatory Management
4
No
285
EEA 2010. 10 Messages for 2010: Marine Ecosystems. European Environment Agency, Denmark.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This document is the 4th in a series of assessments under the title ‘10 messages for 2010’ and focuses on marine ecosystems. The key messages from this document follow. Marine ecosystems provide key services both globally and locally, which are essential for maintaining life on our planet. However, marine biodiversity faces an unprecedented range of pressures. In recent years, climate change has caused changes in species distribution and presents new challenges for marine biodiversity as oceans become more acidic. Many of the problems faced by marine biodiversity were identified some time ago. European marine biodiversity is primarily protected by establishing Natura 2000 sites under Habitats and Birds directives. There is evidence that marine protected areas support marine biodiversity and fisheries and that extent of recovery increases with the age and size of the protected area. EU governments agree that an ecosystem-based approach is the best means to manage and govern activities affecting the marine environment. Synergies between this marine/maritime framework and well-established marine nature protection policy will benefit European marine biodiversity.
Europe
MPA,Marine Biodiversity,Fisheries,Ecosystem Based Management
3
No
286
Swedbio. Contributing to resilience: Results and experiences from the SwedBio collaborative programme 2003-2008. Swedish Biodiversity Centre 2009.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The Swedish International Biodiversity Programme (SwedBio) was initiated in late 2002 by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). Its work is organised into the following main components: Integration of biodiversity aspects in Swedish development cooperation, the Collaborative programme and International dialogue and policy methods development. This report aims to summarize the main results from the collaborative programme from 2003-2008. Through the Collaborative Programme SwedBio has had the opportunity to contribute to development of practical work, methods, ideas and policies concerning biodiversity, ecosystem services and local livelihoods. The two emerging issues are Ecosystem Services and Climate Change and Follow-up to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; there are three dimensions and nine themes. The Collaborative Programme has had a focus on poverty and rights issues which through the experience of the programme has proven to be relevant. Experiences from the supported initiatives clearly affirm that biodiversity is fundamental to human well-being and poverty alleviation and also for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. The section dealing with ensuring equity and human rights in management and use of biodiversity and ecosystem services has case studies involving local and community based management of biodiversity resources.
World
Mitigation,Livelihood,Gender,Community Based Management,Biodiversity,Adaptation
1
No
287
Sunderlin, William D., Resource Decline and Adaptation through time: fishers in San Miguel Bay, Philippines, 1980-1993. Ocean and Coastal Management. 25(1994): 217-232
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
This article examines social conditions in a bay experiencing population growth, gear conflict, overfishing, and general resource decline. Sample surveys of fishing households carried out in 1980 and 1993 in nine villages of San Miguel Bay reveal patterns of continuity and change. The key continuity is sustained overall population growth in fishing villages. Among the key forms of change are those which demonstrate a degree of adaptation to resource decline: decreased participation in fishing; greater reliance of fishing households on nonfishing income; increased dependence on remittances of nonhousehold children; increased participation of women in nonhousehold labor; and dramatic growth in the number of fishing organizations involved in resource management. The findings suggest that resource management policies should be patterned after spontaneous adaptations to resource decline.
Asia
Community Based Management,Overfishing,Income
5
No
288
Subramanian, B. Community Based Fishery Management by the Fishing Villages located around the Pichavaram mangrove wetlands. Fishrfolk Organization for Advancement, 104, Nochi Kuppam, Mylapre, Chennai 600 004. undated
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
This study is based on information collected from elderly fishermen and non fishermen in the Pichavaram Mangrove forest located in the coastal districts of Cuddalore and Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu, India. Nearly 60% of the fishermen from these mangroves are completely dependent on the mangrove waters for their livelihood. The traditional system of management in Tamil Nadu is “Paadu” or “Rotation” system. In Pichavaram, it is locally called “Vunuvalai kattu” or regulation of stake-nets and is followed to regulate mangrove fishery. There is no restriction on the use of gear except for stake nets which are chiefly used to catch prawns by putting the net across the tidal creeks and channels. With increase in fishermen population and decrease in resources, the practice of the community based management system is reported to have become more complicated.
Asia
Mangroves
4
No
289
Yamamoto, Tadashi. 1993. A fishing right to co-op as a basis for Community Based Fisheries Management. Presented at the International Conference on Fisheries economics, which was sponsored by the Centre for Fisheries Economics of the Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen, Norway.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Japan
In Japan, a fishing right is granted to a group of coastal fishermen which is organized at a community level. Such a fishing right system has been developed over the past 250 years. During this period, three were three fishery laws in effect, i.e. ‘Ura’ law (1743-1867), Old Fishery Law (1901-1948) and Current Fishery Law ((1949 onward). Under the first two fishery laws, the fishing right was granted in an attitude that the government was the resource manager. Conversely, under the current fishery law, fishermen are allowed to participate in the formulation of a coastal fisheries management plan within a legal framework set out by the law. This has given a great motive to fishermen to create their own community based coastal fisheries management systems.
Asia
Fishing Rights,Fishworker Cooperatives,Cooperative,Community Based Management
5
No
290
McLean, Kirsty Galloway. 2009. Advance Guard: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, Mitigation and Indigenous Peoples – A compendium of case studies. United Nations University – Traditional Knowledge Initiative, Darwin, Australia.
Documents and Reports
Traditional Knowledge N/a
This compendium presents a wide-ranging overview of more than 400 projects, case studies and research activities specifically related to climate change and Indigenous Peoples. It provides a sketch of the climate and environmental changes, local observations and impacts being felt by communities in different regions, and outlines various adaptation and mitigation strategies that are currently being implemented by Indigenous Peoples – the world’s “advance guard” of climate change – as they use their traditional knowledge and survival skills to trial adaptive responses to change. Indigenous strategies include application and modification of traditional knowledge and modern technologies, fire management practices, changes in hunting and gathering periods and crop diversification; management of ecosystem services; awareness raising and education, including an increasing use of multimedia and social networks; and policy, planning and strategy development.
World
Traditional Knowledge,Mitigation,Indigenous Knowledge,Indigenous Communities,Climate Change,Adaptive management,Adaptation
5
No
291
Balgos, M., T.G. Bayer, B. Crawford, C.R. Pagdilao, J. Tulungen and A.T. White. 2001. Proceedings of the Philippines-Indonesia Workshop on Community Based Marine Sanctuaries, September 2000. CRC Coastal Management Report # 2234.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The objectives of the workshop in relation to community based coastal resource management and community based marine sanctuaries was to share experience between Indonesia and the Philippines, discuss results of the Philippines focus group sessions and field research, discuss lessons learned concerning success at a given site and for promoting institutional replication in other villages, elaborate on guidance for field workers and for institutions interested in replicating this process and describe future challenges for the Philippines and North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The report begins with an overview of the project in Philippines and Indonesia. It was found that over a three year period, several CB-MS models have been established in North Sulawesi which can show concrete benefits. They key to the success of these initiatives are also described. In the case of the Philippines, it was noted that the long term goals are to focus on ICM approaches that are comprehensive and include MSs as an important tool for habitat management. It was stressed that MSs are really a microcosm of larger and more complex coastal management programmes that are essential to address the multitude of issues in coastal areas. It was also stressed that multi-sector collaboration is required for ICM to succeed. This collaboration must include foreign donors as well as national agencies and organizations.
Asia
Philippines,Indonesia,marine sanctuary,Community Based Management
5
No
292
Salagrama, Venkatesh. Trends in poverty and livelihoods in coastal fishing communities of Orissa State, India. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 490
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0692e/a0692e00.htm
Community based management N/a
This study analyses the livelihoods of marine fishing communities in the Indian coastal state of Orissa using the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). It investigates the relationships between livelihoods and coastal poverty and seeks to develop simple qualitative indicators to monitor the changes in these relationships over time. The key trends affecting the livelihoods of the poor in the coastal fishing communities in Orissa range across the whole spectrum of “assets” – i.e. the natural, physical, social, human and financial – and contribute to changes in terms of availability as well as access to the assets for the poorer stakeholders. Thus, the overall decline in availability of fish from the coastal waters is also accompanied by a declining access of the poor to the fish resources as a result of changes in fishing technology and in market supply chains. The shift in fishing methods from subsistence-based artisanal activities to sophisticated modern technologies has rendered redundant the traditional skills, knowledge and manual labour abilities of the poor, while also increasing risks and leading to a dependence upon external sources of credit. As fish are sold directly to the traders at the point of landing, fishermen no longer depend on the women to sell them, so the women find themselves marginalized. There is evidence that food insecurity is growing in the fishing villages and, coupled with the weakening of the welfare state policies, leading to increasing deprivation. Apart from the various trends, this paper examines the impact of seasonality and shocks upon the fisheries-based livelihoods and the importance and the influence of various policies, institutions and processes in addressing the fishers’ need to cope with their vulnerability context in a meaningful manner. It summarizes the various factors having an impact upon the livelihoods of the fishers and develops them into simple indicators relevant in assessing the changing patterns of poverty in fishing communities of Orissa.
Policy,Livelihood,Institutions,Food Security,Access Rights
4
No
293
FAO/FishCode. Report of the National Conference on Responsible Fisheries in Viet Nam, Hanoi, Viet Nam, 29-30 September 2003. FAO/FishCode Review. No.9. Rome, FAO. 2004. 94p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/ad939e/ad939e00.HTM
Community based management Vietnam
The National Conference on Responsible Fisheries in Viet Nam (Hanoi, 29-30 September 2003) was organized by the Ministry of Fisheries of Viet Nam in close collaboration with the Research Institute for Marine Fisheries and the FAO FishCode Programme. The Conference was held in the context of increasing problems faced by fisherfolk in maintaining and improving their livelihoods through coastal and offshore fisheries. Some coastal fish resources in particular are heavily over-exploited. The Conference aimed to build awareness among national policy-makers and resource users regarding overexploitation and its consequences, facilitate discussion on ways and means to promote a national transition to responsible fisheries, and identify and develop consensus on elements of a national strategy to achieve responsible fisheries management in Viet Nam. It was attended by 108 stakeholders, representing local and commercial fisheries interests, national and provincial government bodies, bilateral development assistance agencies and international organizations. Participants obtained an overview of the status of the Vietnamese fisheries resources from national and international experts and discussed coastal and offshore fisheries management and the integration of fisheries into coastal area management based on the principles of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Sound management of the offshore fleet and the strengthening of community-based management of the coastal fisheries were considered the most suitable solutions to current problems by all participants. Fisheries management should be based on an appropriate legal framework, include participation of all stakeholders (also stakeholders from other coastal sectors), and foster better coordination and cooperation among the stakeholders. In the transition to community-based fishery management it was seen as important that pilot demonstration projects be established and that the process be supported by a national strategy for responsible fisheries management. Issues such as the management of fishing capacity, closing of certain areas for fishing, establishment of marine protected areas, enforcement of regulations with regard to destructive fishing methods, search for alternative employment and re-training for fisherfolk were seen as necessary elements for inclusion in the national strategy.
Asia
Stakeholders
4
No
294
FAO. Report of the National Workshop on Micro-enterprise Development in Coastal Communities in the Philippines: Sharing of Experiences and Lessons Learned. Davao City, Philippines, 7–10 March 2006. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 850. Rome, FAO. 2007. 112p.
Documents and Reports
http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1451e/a1451e00.htm
Community based management N/a
The goals of the National Workshop on Micro-enterprise Development in Coastal Communities in the Philippines were to exchange experiences and good practices and to identify financial and institutional support services and facilities to sustain livelihoods and micro-enterprise development in coastal areas. The discussions at the workshop showed that livelihood diversification and the improvement of income and employment opportunities in coastal fishing communities are crucial for their participation in the conservation and management of aquatic resources. Key elements of sustainable micro-enterprise development as identified by the workshop include capability building of fisherfolk organizations such as cooperatives and associations to implement livelihood projects, the preparation of feasibility studies and business plans, technical skills development, sound financial management practices, development of innovative and high quality products, access to new markets including urban and regional markets and the full participation of fisherfolk in the identification of livelihood activities and micro-enterprises. Good coordination with local government units, active participation of all stakeholders and conduct of appropriate training programmes are considered essential for the sustainability of the micro-enterprises. The involvement of fisherfolk in livelihood activities and micro-enterprises is strengthening their participation in the fisheries and aquatic resources management councils of Banate Bay and Southern Iloilo. The experiences of the pilot project also suggest that in order to make various income generating livelihood initiatives sustainable and stand on their own feet, many of these need to develop further into full-fledged micro-enterprises.
Asia
Stakeholders,Livelihood,Fisheries Resources,Conservation,Capacity Building
4
No
295
Ruddle , K. 1994. A guide to the literature on traditional community-based fishery management in the Asia-Pacific tropics FAO Fisheries Circular. No.869. Rome, FAO , 114p.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This Circular is a guide to the literature on traditional fisheries management systems in the Asia-Pacific tropics. The introductory section discusses the geographical distributions of such systems, their principal characteristics including authority, rights, rules, and monitoring, accountability and enforcement. It notes that information on these systems is fragmentatry and much remains anecdotal and unsynthesized. It calls for greater research efforts on these systems and highlights some major research issues including the nature of management boundaries and the traditional ecological knowledge base. The main body of the Circular provides, on a country by country basis, a summary of the present knowledge on traditional management systems of marine and estuarine fisheries in the Asia-Pacific tropics based on the literature available to the author.
Asia
Traditional Management Systems,Traditional Knowledge,Marine Fisheries
4
No
296
FAO/Japan 1993. Expert Consultation on the Development of Community-Based Coastal Fishery Management Systems for Asia and the Pacific. Papers presented at the FAO/Japan Expert Consultation on the Development of a Community-Based Coastal Fishery Management Systems for Asia and the Pacific. Kobe, Japan, 8-12 June 1992. FAO Fish. Rep. No. 474. Suppl. Vol. 1. FAO, Rome. pp. 1-377.
Community based management Philippines
Effective management of small scale fisheries is an extraordinarily difficult task. Community-based approaches to management appear to offer important opportunities in certain situations. Extensive experience of such approaches in Japan provides valuable lessons of both the difficulties and opportunities of this approach. The consultation examined these experiences, as well as others in the Asia and Pacific region. It identified the critical factors that facilitate or constrain community based management; it identified guiding principles for the adoption and implementation of such systems; and it made proposals for short and long term projects and programmes to encourage increased use of community-based approaches.
Traditional Practice,Small Scale Fisheries,PNG,New Zealand,Malaysia,Kiribati,Japan,Indonesia,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Canada,Asia
5
Volume 1 of the papers
No
297
Gaspart, F. and J.-P. Platteau. Promotion of Coastal Fisheries Management 1. Local-Level Effort Regulation in Senegalese Fisheries. FAO Fisheries Circular No.957/1, Rome, FAO, 2000. 37p
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/X9321E/X9321E00.pdf
Community based management Senegal
The analytical framework used throughout most of this study is directly inspired from transaction-cost economics, implying that a lot of attention is devoted to monitoring and enforcement costs involved in collective schemes. One of its most important contributions is to show that, with the help of these tools combined with conventional market power considerations, successes and failures of different groups of fishermen according to their technique and site of operation can be well accounted for. The first part of the document provides background information regarding Senegalese small-scale marine fisheries is provided and the methodology of the study based on cross-section data is briefly described. In Section 2, an historical sketch of all recent effort-limiting schemes attempted along the Senegalese coast is presented. The methods used to limit fishing efforts, which vary according to the fishery concerned, are discussed with a view to understanding their rationales in the light of the specific circumstances surrounding them. In the third section, the incidence of rule violations as perceived by the fishermen themselves is addressed and is also tackled by using the multinomial logit approach on the basis of survey data. Section 4 is devoted to fitting a time-series econometric model to price and output data. Section 5 summarizes the main results of the study. It is found that many of the factors shown to have a significant impact are of a rather structural character, namely, market conditions, features of fishing techniques which bear upon enforcement costs of a collective scheme, nature of relationships between fishermen and fish merchants, and history-determined patterns of authority and leadership. By overlooking such critical parameters, one incurs a high risk of setting up control measures that will be short-lived. The same parameters are also susceptible of evolving and, as a result, measures that worked rather well in a given period may prove difficult to sustain in a different set of circumstances. This dynamic aspect of reality, is probably the most difficult to accept by leaders who have played a major role in the initiation and enforcement of local-level regulation of fishing effort.
Africa
Fishing techniques,Community Based Management
4
No
298
Tietze, U.; Haughton, M.; Siar, S.V. 2006. (eds.) Socio-economic indicators in integrated coastal zone and community-based fisheries management – Case studies from the Caribbean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 491. Rome. FAO. 208p.
Documents and Reports
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0690e/a0690e00.pdf
Community based management Caribbean
During 2004 and 2005, the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), assisted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), carried out case studies in Belize, Dominica, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago and the Turks and Caicos Islands on the consideration of socio-economic and demographic concerns in fisheries and coastal area management and planning. The findings of these studies were reviewed by a regional workshop, held 13–17 June 2005 in Trinidad and Tobago. Most workshop recommendations focus on actions to be taken by national governments, such as promoting the development of fishing communities through fishers’ and community-based organizations; review by each country of its legal framework and establishment of task forces comprised of government agencies, industry and other stakeholders; policy direction to promote economic and social development of fishing communities and community-based organizations and creation of fisheries development units under the fisheries departments. Activities for follow-up by FAO include: (i) assistance in the development of materials on community-based fisheries management and the collection and use of socio-economic, demographic and cultural information for use by fisheries extension personnel and fishers’ organizations; and (ii) provision of technical advice on fisheries port development and management for and with the participation of coastal communities and major stakeholders.
N. America
Stakeholders,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Coastal Communities,Coastal Area Management
4
No
299
Hviding, Edvard and Graham B.K. Baines. Community-based Fisheries Management, Tradition and the Challenges of Development in Marovo, Solomon Islands. Development and Change 25(1994): 13-39.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
This study examines traditional fisheries management through a case in which local communities, from a basis of customary, ‘common property’ control over the sea and its resources, handle a multitude of development issues. Presenting first some important issues relating to people’s role in fisheries management and to the ‘common property’ debate, the article then describes a traditional system for management of land and sea resources in a Pacific Islands society; that of Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands. Emphasis is given to fisheries resources, with a view to explaining in practical terms how a system of customary marine tenure operates under the wider social, political, economic and ecological circumstances of change arising from development pressures. Against this background, assessments are made of the viability of this traditional fisheries management system under present conditions of state control and of both external and internal pressures for large-scale development enterprises.
Oceania
Traditional Management,Customary Tenure,Community Based Management
5
No
300
Mehra, Rekham Margaret Alcott and Nilda S. Baling. 1993.. Women’s Participation in the Cogtong Bay Mangrove Management Project: A Case Study. International Center for Research on Women, Washington D.C. and WWF, Washington D.C.
Documents and Reports
Community based management,Women and Resources Management Philippines
Te objective of ‘The Gender Factor in Community Development and Resource Management Project’ of which this study is a part, is to heighten awareness of the critical roles women play in natural resource management and sustainable development, and to strengthen the skills of the staff involved in the preparation and implementation of these projects. This case study of the Cogtong Bay Mangrove Management Project in the Philippines takes an in-depth look at the issue. It examines the extent and nature of women’s resource management roles and of their involvement in the project. In addition the case study identifies ways to enhance women’s participation in conservation and resource management.
Asia
Women,Resources Management,Mangroves,Gender,Community Based Management
5
No
301
Polotan-de la Cruz, Leonore (Editor) 1993 . Our sea, our life. Proceedings of the seminar workshop on community based coastal resources management, February 7-12, , Philippines.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
This report is an attempt to capture in print the highlights of the dynamic exchange of ideas among the participants and the resulting wealth of knowledge from these interactions at the seminar on community based coastal resources management. The first part presents an overview of CBCRM in the Philippines and the underlying principles and concepts of such. The second part contains four case studies of CBCRM programmes of four NGOs. Included in part three are the multi-disciplinary components needed to enrich the CBCRM framework as well as the lessons and recommendations arrived at by the workshop participants.
Asia
Coral Reefs,Poverty,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management,Mangroves,Tenure and Use,Property rights
5
No
302
Community Based Livelihood Projects in the coastal areas in the Philippines. Workshop Proceedings, 22-25 April 1998, The Philippines.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This workshop saw community based volunteers/ development workers as the primary participants and speakers. The objectives were to identify key factors in the success and failure of community based livelihood projects based on the insights, perceptions and prospective of community based volunteers/ development workers and their counterparts. Seven case papers and eleven poster presentations were made. A SWOT analysis of livelihood development projects and programmes was also done.
Asia
Livelihood,Inland Fisheries,Gender,Cooperative,Community Based Management,Aquaculture
4
No
303
Moffat, David and Margareth Kyewalayanga. 1998, Local and Community Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Experiences from Eastern Africa. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop, Experiences in Local and Community Integrated Coastal Zone Management – Lessons to date. Zanzibar, March 4-7,. SEACAM & WIOMSA
Documents and Reports
Community based management Kenya
The objective of the workshop was to discuss lessons learned from the local and community ICZM projects in Eastern Africa as a critical foundation on which to build successful new activities. Participants sought to discuss and answer the question : what makes for successful local and community integrated coastal zone management. The document contains the full papers presented at the workshop as well as the working group summaries. The nineteen papers were divided into four thematic areas: (i) marine conservation, (ii) terrestrial experience, (iii) tourism and fisheries and (iv) coastal management. Integrated coastal management is relatively new to Eastern Africa. The projects represent eight Eastern African countries (Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania). Project size ranges widely from the sub-district level to entire island states. Sustainable tourism and fisheries management are important in many of the projects which are mostly assisted by international donors.
Africa
Community Based Management
5
No
304
Cunningham, Stephen and Tim Bostock (Editors). Successful Fisheries Management: Issues, Case Studies and Perspectives. Eburon Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
This book represents the final output of a policy study that was initiated in 2002 under the auspices of an agreement between the Support unit of International Fisheries and Aquatic Research and the World Bank. The study was informed by a series of seven case studies implemented in selected fisheries from around the globe, each of which was recognized as demonstrating some facets of success. These included: Pacific halibut fishery; fisheries sector of Mauritania; co-managed and community based fisheries in Shetland; traditional community based management in Andhra Pradesh, India; Senegalese artisanal fisheries of Kayar; Namibian hake fishery; and the Australian northern prawn fishery. Core principles from each specific experience were distilled through a consultation process, and these then informed generic conclusions on ‘management good practice’. Each case study illustrates one or more of the several possible dimensions of success. Successful fisheries require institutional capacity both to define an appropriate balance of different parameters within management objectives and to implement and adapt these responsively over time.
World
Senegal,Community Based Management,Co-management,Artisanal Fisheries
5
No
305
Oxfam GB, Gleanings: Lessons in Community Based Coastal Resources Management. 1999.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
This volume is the help partners further enhance their theory and practice of community based coastal resources management through exchanges of ideas and lessons from the field. The case studies strive to focus on a component or aspect of their respective programmes so that the hard lessons can be shared with others. Community organizing and livelihood by SIKAT focuses on microcredit as well as fisher friendly community management programmes. CERD’s work on community based management in the context of industrialization, and the need of fishers to protect and rehabilitate their common fishing grounds. Activities of NFR (NGOs for fisheries reform) in working with the small scale fisherfolk, the media and the government in their campaign for a new fisheries code is detailed in a chapter. One chapter in Filpino is on stories about CBCRM training programmes. Mainstreaming gender provides details of gender issues. ELAC’s work on assisting indigenous and fisherfolk communities gain tenurial security over their natural resources forms one chapter. Finally, gleanings from working for a decade with fishers by Oxfam GB concludes the volume.
Asia
Tenure and Use,Legislation,Fishing Grounds,Community Based Management
4
No
306
Community-Based Coastal Resource Management Festival, June 2004. CBCRM Resource Centre, Philippines
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
The CBCRM festival brings together practitioners and advocates from various countries including the Philippines to celebrate and reflect on the gains and challenges of the CBCRM movement. The festival’s sub-themes discussed in this volume are to celebrate CBCRM’s ten years, the state-of-the art in CBCRM and identification of and unity as to the challenges and ways forward. Community based organizations’ reflections on the CBRCRM provides a ground-level view of happenings while two papers look at the trends, outcomes and impacts of CBCRM as well as the evaluation of the process by Oxfam GB. Grassroots perspectives of the fisheries code and the related policy challenges in CBCRM is the subject of a third paper while another one revisits the theory and practice of CBCRM in the Philippines. Overall synthesis looks at gains in different areas such as socio-cultural aspects, governance, ecological/biophysical, and social energy. Power, participation and institutions, conflict management models and mechanisms, sustainable livelihoods, gender and other topics were discussed in the challenges in the CBCRM processes.
Asia
Gender,Governance,Institutions,Livelihood,Community Based Management
4
No
307
World Humanity Action Trust. Governance for a sustainable future. Report of the Commissions of the World Humanity action Trust, 2000.
Documents and Reports
www.what.org.uk
Community based management N/a
The WHAT has defined governance as “the framework of social and economic systems and legal and political structures through which humanity manages itself”. The reports in this volume are derived from the work of three Commissions set up by the WHAT to study the governance requirements for water, fisheries and agricultural genetic diversity. These subjects were chosen because of the ‘global commons’ nature of their problems. Although different issues arise, they all relate to the resources that have been generally seen as being freely available for use by mankind. The common conclusion is that action is needed now, at both global and national levels, to improve radically the systems we have for governing the use of these resources. Innovations in governance such as new market mechanisms, systems for regional management of resources, public information and education initiatives and better linkages between government departments and across sectors are needed. The section on the governance of the world’s marine fisheries concludes that effective governance of fisheries requires the assignment of enforceable rights to shares of fisheries and also focuses on traditional rights as well as community based management systems on enforcing rights.
World
Community Based Management,Governance,Rights,Traditional Management,Food Security
4
No
308
CBNRM in Cambodia: selected papers on concepts and experiences. CBNRM Learning Initiative, 2005.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
During the last two decades, policy makers, planners and scholars have needed to revisit and reconsider the important role of relevant stakeholders, particularly marginalized groups in local communities, in natural resources management and conservation. One new management approach towards sustainable natural resource management is community based natural resource management (CBNRM). This is an umbrella term used for many initiatives including community forestry, community fisheries, participatory land use planning, community protected area and joint forest management. A national Workshop on CBNRM (Phnom Penh, November 2002) indicated a need for compilation of field lessons learned from different projects and organizations. This compilation is divided into five sections and twenty chapters. The first section, Developing CBNRM in Cambodia, provides an overview of the theoretical background and practical situation for CBNRM in Cambodia. The second section focuses on recent policy changes and legal developments while the third explores networking, working groups and institutional developments. The fourth section is lessons learned from field experiences while the last section looks at key opportunities and challenges for CBNRM which look at moving towards good governance, securing land and resource tenure rights, and sustainable livelihoods. This status report serves as important baseline information for CBNRM as it stands in Cambodia towards the end of 2004.
Asia
Tenure and Use,Rights,Livelihood,Governance,Community Based Management
5
No
309
Haggan, Nigel, Barbara Neis and Ian G. Baird. Fishers’ Knowledge in Fisheries Science and Management. Coastal Management Sourcebooks 4. UNESCO Publishing.
Documents and Reports
Community based management N/a
The book brings together examples from indigenous small-scale industrial and recreational fisheries in marine and freshwater environments across the globe. The book grew out of a 2001 conference called ‘Putting Fishers’ Knowledge to Work’. Fishers’ knowledge is inclusive of men and women who ‘fish’ in the broadest possible sense. The main body of the book is divided between Indigenous and Artisanal and Commercial fisheries. The first section is by indigenous people with practical experiences based on their own knowledge systems. In the second part, researchers begin with the Pacific Vanuatu, through Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, Laos, Bangladesh, Brazil and Mexico to Sweden where the names of the lakes given by fishermen were used to identify lakes that once supported brown trout. The knowledge of commercial fishers has been used to map the seabed in the USA, Australia, and other places. The final chapter contains a synthesis of the lessons learned. The urgent need for approaches to fisheries science and management that promote the collection, critical examination and synthesis of all potential types of fisheries knowledge and all effective mechanisms for promoting sharing of information and of the responsibility and struggle to protect and restore the world’s endangered fish stocks is emphasised.
World
5
No
310
CBCRM, Case studies from Southern Traditional Fisher Folk Communities. 2002.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Thailand
This is a review of all the conflict situations and possible solutions towards the problem of marine and coastal resource degradation. The cases were presented in the First Asian Fisherfolk Conference held in Thailand in 2002. The crisis of the sea and the disintegration of the traditional fisherfolk community as a result of mainstream development of Thailand are first explored. The book aims to explain the influence of globalization that has created negative impacts in fisherfolk livelihoods. It also discusses the evolution of people’s initiatives in response to their problems including the mobilization process from the village level to the regional level before giving a broad description of the Federation of Southern Fisherfolk. Case studies from Songkla Lake and Gulf of Thailand are used to show the problems and the solutions that are being worked upon. There are research papers dealing with integrated marine resource management as well as on rights systems.
Asia
Traditional Management,Rights,Globalisation,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
5
No
311
Lacson, Brenda M. And Heidi P. Curz (Editors). . Community Property Rights. Tambuyog Development Center, Philippines,
Documents and Reports
Community based management Philippines
This is the output of three practitioners of a community centered approach towards coastal resource management. The action research included review of secondary literature to get an overview of community property rights in CBCRM experiences, case studies on approaches and experience of CBCRM programmes in responding to pre existing and prevailing coastal conditions and property arrangements and finally, the research findings were validated at a workshop. The literature indicates that CPR is strongly grounded on the theories of common property rights and traditional resource management. The case studies point out that the key element in CPR is the community. What appears significant is not so much having a common formula on how to define communities but understanding them, particularly community needs and interests. A common element of all case studies is the strong presence of political factors. Conflict or dispute lies at the core of CPR as indicated by the conflict between communities and business interests, and even among intra-community groups.
Asia
Stakeholders,Rights,Property rights,Property regime,CPR,Conflicts,Conflict Resolution,Conflict Management,Community Based Management
5
No
312
Souter, David and Olof Linden (Editors). Coral Reef Degradation in the Indian Ocean. Status Report 2005. CORDIO, Sweden.
books
Community based management N/a
This is the fourth Cordio Status report in which the current status of coral reefs and the problems that continue to degrade reefs as well as recent patterns of recovery and the resultant changes in the community structure in the region are documented. The achievements of the Cordio programme and its partners in establishing alternative livelihoods and options for income diversification for people solely dependent on the productivity of shallow water ecosystems and the successes in raising awareness among coastal communities are also described. In the thematic reports section local level coral reef management in Southern Kenya and community based monitoring of reef resources in Lakshadweep (India) are important for community based approaches
Africa,Asia
India,Kenya,Mozambique,Sri Lanka,Coral Reefs,South Asia,Community Based Management
3
No
313
Kooiman, J, M. Bavinck, S. Jentoft and R. Pullin. 2005. Fish for Life: Interactive governance for fisheries. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam,
books
Community based management N/a
One billion people around the world rely upon fish as their primary—and in many cases, their only—source of protein. At the same time, increasing demand from wealthier populations in the U.S. and Europe encourages dangerous overfishing practices along coastal waters. Fish for Life addresses the problem of overfishing at local, national, and global levels as part of a comprehensive governance approach—one that acknowledges the critical intersection of food security, environmental protection, and international law in fishing practices throughout the world. ‘Fish for Life’ presents an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach to the governance of capture fisheries and aquaculture, with special reference to the circumstances of developing countries. Holistic in scope, and building on state-of-the-art understandings of the field, the authors argue for an interactive style of governance that takes account of the diversity, complexity, dynamics, and scales affecting marine ecology as well as human society. Governance, the authors argue, is the joint responsibility of governments, civil society, and market. The book is in five parts. The first part addresses the governance perspective. In the second part, the system to be governed is looked at because the challenge for fisheries governance is to resolve, as effectively and equitably as possible, the conflicts that result from seeking to simultaneously pursue the goals of maintaining a healthy ecosystem whilst continuing to derive social benefits from it. Institutions (especially their design and working), the instrument through which the formation and execution of fisheries governance occurs are discussed in the third part while the fourth and fifth parts deal with principles and prospects, respectively, of fisheries governance.
World
Institutions,Governance,Fisheries Management,Conflicts,Conflict Management,Community Based Management
5
No
314
Telapak. Deadly spray in the archipelago. Telapak, Indonesia. 2004
books
Community based management Indonesia
This book talks about lessons learned from Telapak’s field experiences from 1999-2004 in compiling data and developing collaborative learning process with the fishermen who are actors in destructive fishing in Indonesia. Telapak, in collaboration with a number of NGOs conducted field surveys that found many practices of blast and cyanide fishing. It then worked with local communities towards community based management. Lack of integrated policies have resulted in over exploitation of resources. Training for field implementation have been done to develop simple plans of coastal and marine management.
Asia
DFT,Community Based Management
3
No
315
Wilson, D.C., J.R. Nielsen and P. Degnbol (Editors). 2003. The fisheries co-management experience: accomplishments, challenges and prospects. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
books
Community based management Hong Kong
For two decades the idea of governments and fishers working together to manage fisheries has been advocated, questioned, disparaged and, most importantly, attempted in fisheries from North and South America through Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. This book is the first time these experiences have been pulled together in a single volume, summarized and explained. The Fisheries Co-management Experience begins with a review of the intellectual foundations of the co-management idea from several professional perspectives. Next, fisheries researchers from six global regions describe what has been happening on the ground in their area. Finally, the volume offers a set of reflections by some of the best authors in the field. The end result describes both the state-of-the-art and emerging issues for one of the most important trends in natural resources management.
World
Traditional Management,Property rights,Fisheries Management,Conflicts,Community Based Management,Co-management
5
No
316
M.J. Morris, M. Hotta and A.R. Atapattu (editors). 1994. Report and Proceedings of the Sri Lanka / FAO National Workshop on Community-Based Fisheries Management, Colombo. 3-5 October, Madras, BoBP, Report No. 72, pp.237+viii
Documents and Reports
Community based management Sri Lanka
In Sri Lanka, traditional fisheries management has been implemented for many years in certain areas. The concept of participatory approaches in fisheries management where target beneficiaries are involved in the planning, decision making and implementation of management measures is, therefore, not new in the country. The government is keen to introduce and actively promote community-based management for the sustainable use of fisheries resources. The workshop examined the possibilities of strengthening participatory approaches in fishery management and identified a number of conditions to be met, and made recommendations for the government and other institutions to follow.
Asia
Traditional Management,Participatory Management,Fisheries Management,Community Based Management
5
No
317
Chong, Kee-Chai and S.R. Madhu. Report of the Workshop on Smart Partnerships for Sustainability in the Fishing Industry. 26-28 November 1997. BoBP/REP/81.
Community based management Australia
The theme of the workshop was sustaining the fisheries resource and alleviating poverty among fisherfolk, which can be achieved through ‘smart partnerships’ among the different types of stakeholders – such as the government, the fisherfolk community, the scientists and the private sector. Each presentation and discussion at the workshop provided insights into the successes and failures of fisheries management and yielded suggestions for more successful practices. Community based management, highlighted throughout, was seen as a key factor behind the sustainability of fishing industries, whether national or global.
Asia
Community Based Management
5
No
318
Leang, Seng, Pouk Bunthet and Dul Vuth. 2004. Community Based Protected area Management and Sustainable Livelihoods: A Case Study. Chi Ouk Village, Cambodia. CFRP and CBNRM Initiative/WWF
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cambodia
This case study examines whether the development of community protected areas really contributes to upgrading the livelihood of local communities. The Boeung Per wildlife sanctuary has a total area of 242500 ha and extends over three provinces, It has abundant natural resources. People in that area are dependent on forest resources due to low outputs from rice cultivation and shifting cultivation. The decrease of forest resources has caused serious impact on the livelihoods of local communities. The establishment of a community protected area resulted in certain positive results including recognition of the legal rights of the community to managing natural resources, reduction of illegal activities, improved local capacity etc. These helped in upgrading the livelihoods as well as natural resource management.
Asia
Protected Areas,Natural Resources,Livelihood,Community Based Management
3
No
319
Ekaratne, S.U.K., S.S. Jinendradasa, M.S. Abeysisrigunawardana and J. Davenport, 2000. Coastal Conservation through enterprise at Rekawa Lagoon, Sri Lanka.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Sri Lanka
The present case study reports on successes that were achieved in natural resource management where a low-income traditional type of village stakeholder community was motivated to unite and self-regulate fishing pressure on the resource so that the entire community benefitted. It also reports on the spillover of this exercise which brought about environmental awareness and community based habitat conservation. The study reviews the factors that contributed to this success and the constraints that were experienced. It demonstrates how the economic value of a coastal lagoon habitat was enhanced by stocking the lagoon with the economically valuable shrimp resource. And it describes how this led the community to protect the coastal habitat to ensure high levels of shrimp production.
Asia
Lagoon,Community Based Management
5
No
320
Nickerson, D.J. (Editor). 1998. Community-based Fisheries Managemetn in Phang-nga Bay, Thailand. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Community-based Fisheries Management organized by the Department of Fisheries of Thailand, FAO and the Bay of Bengal Programme, Phuket, Thailand, 14-16 February 1996. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. RAP Publication 1998/3 (BOBP Report No. 78), 227p
Documents and Reports
Community based management Thailand
This document reports the outcome of the Workshop aimed to build a common understanding among the key participants from the Department of Fisheries (DOF) of Thailand, the fishers and village leaders, universities and NGOs, of the importance, benefits and constraints, roles and responsibilities, and needs for flexibility in undertaking the new approach of ‘partnership in management’ under the DOF/BOBP Community-based Fisheries Management (CBFM) Project in Phang-nga Bay, Thailand. Another objective was to build a consensus among the key participants on the objectives on the objectives, issues for management and general approach for implementation of the project. Presentations on the status and trends of fishery resources, the ecology, socio-economics, opportunities for women’s involvement, as well as fishers’ own knowledge of the Bay were presented and are contained in this document. Recommendations of the Workshop include: organizing of a CBFM management framework, establishment of a revolving fund managed under the CBFM framework with funding sources from NGOs. Government of Thailand, and fishers’ profits; and provision of training and information services for awareness building. It was recommended that the priority issue to be addressed was to develop approaches and measures to effectively execute and enforce the fisher community ban on push nets and trawlers. The early results of the CBFM project after the workshop are also given.
Asia
Women,Trawling,Fisheries Resources,Community Based Management
3
No
321
Heinan, Arjan. 2003. Rehabilitating Nearshore Fisheries: Theory And Practice On Community-based Coastal Resource Management From Danao Bay, Philippines. CBCRM Resource Center. Manila. 206p.
books
Community based management Philippines
Much is being written and spoken about fisheries management today. There are several areas where fisheries management is being carried out either by coastal communities themselves or with the assistance of governments or other agencies. The approaches differ, depending on the fishery and the community of fishers involved. The Philippines, in particular, probably because of its specific island geography, has a fairly long history of community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM). Some of these approaches have been documented elsewhere, but one of the most illustrated of them is the one documented by Arjan Heinen. As its title elaborates, it is about the theory and practice on CBCRM in Danao Bay, Philippines, facilitated by the Pipuli Foundation. This book not only makes very interesting reading as it alternates between the theory and processes involved with the actual strategies employed by the Danao Bay community, but it also clearly explains how the actual action was undertaken.
Asia
Community Based Management
4
No
322
Sharma, Arpita; Rupam Sharma; S.P.Shukla and Parmita. B. Sawant. 2012. Indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) in fisheries sector of West coast of India- A resource book. Narendra Publishing House. New Delhi
books
Traditional Knowledge India
ITK's is the unique, traditional, local knowledge that a particular community acquires from personal experience, over generations, developed indigenously in their geographical areas. Central Institute of Fisheries Education has taken up this initiative of documenting ITKs in fisheries through a series of writeshops. This book incorporates information about ITKs pertaining to the west coast, which are famous for their rich cultural heritage and diverse traditional knowledge interwoven with scientific acument.
Asia
Traditional Knowledge
4
No
323
Chuenpagdee, Ratana, Jose J.Pascual-Fernandez, Emese Szelianszky, Juan Luis Alegret, Julia Fraga, Svein Jentoft, Marine protected areas: Re-thinking their inception. Marine Policy 39 (2013) 234–240
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Spain
When marine protected areas (MPAs) do not succeed, which is often the case, their failure is mostly attributed to factors related to their design and operation. In this paper, it is argued that reasons for lack of success must be sought in the process that leads upto their establishment, i.e., the initial stage when the idea was conceived, communicated, and discussed among stakeholders. To illustrate the significance of the ‘step zero’, the creation of four MPAs in Spain and Mexico is analyzed. These case studies show how MPA proposals can easily be drawn not only into power struggles between stakeholders but also into political issues that extend far beyond the MPA itself. For this reason, the governance of MPAs requires broad considerations of the potential political risks and pitfalls. MPAs are, after all, not just a technical management measure, but a socio-political enterprise.
Europe,Central America
Stakeholders,Socio-economic Aspects,Politics,MPA,Coastal resources management
5
No
324
Bottema, Mariska J.M. and Simon R. Bush. The durability of private sector-led marine conservation: A case study of two entrepreneurial marine protected areas in Indonesia. Ocean & Coastal Management 61 (2012) 38-48. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.01.004
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs Indonesia
This paper investigates the durability of entrepreneurial marine protected areas (EMPAs) by exploring the role of the private sector in marine conservation. Set within a wider set of social science questions around the marine protected areas as negotiated interventions, we focus on whether and how tourism entrepreneurs can instill a long-term vision for marine conservation, funding and management, thereby overcoming commonly cited implementation and enforcement failures in state-led marine parks. The analysis is based on an empirical comparison of the Yayasan Karang Lestari coral restoration project in Pemuteran on the Northwest coast of Bali, and the marine tourism park around the island of Gili Trawangan off the west coast of Lombok in Indonesia. Our results show that the private sector is able to increase awareness of conservation amongst tourists and coastal communities, provide new income alternatives, and provide financial capacity to support marine conservation activities. It does not, however, appear to have the capacity to create durable, institutionalised arrangements without state support. These findings feed into a wider discussion on the formation of EMPAs, the role of alternative organisational structures and technologies in facilitating change in coastal areas, and how traditionally economic concepts such as entrepreneurship can contribute to a wider understanding of marine conservation governance.
Asia
Tourism,Private Sector,MPA,Income,Conservation,Coastal Communities
4
No
325
Bown, Natalie K., Tim S. Gray, Selina M. Stead. Co-management and adaptive eco-management: Two modes of governance in a Honduran marine protected area. Marine Policy 39 (2013) 128–134.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.09.005
Documents and Reports
Co-management Honduras
Selecting the best mode of governance for marine protected areas (MPAs) especially in developing countries has generated considerable controversy in the academic and policy literature during the last 20 years. In this article, two modes – co-management (CM) and adaptive co-management (ACM) – are analysed in detail, and an examination is made of an attempt to put these modes sequentially into practice in the first (2003–2009) and second (2008–2013) management plans, respectively, of the Cayos Cochinos MPA (CCMPA) in Honduras. Extensive fieldwork was carried out during 2006–2010 in three communities dependent on the CCMPA (Rio Esteban, Nueva Armenia, and Chachahuate) including key informant interviews, focus group meetings, household surveys, and participant observation. The paper’s findings are (1) that while the first plan implemented some CM principles (such as sharing responsibility between government, stakeholders and NGOs) it failed to deliver other CM principles (such as transparency and accountability); and (2) that while the second plan increased participation and transparency, and used a more adaptive approach, it still left many stakeholders out of the decision-making process, and its processes of experimentation, monitoring and social learning were very limited. The fact is that CM and ACM are laudable objectives, but very difficult to implement in full.
Central America
MPA,Co-management,Adaptive management
4
No
326
Joshua E. Cinner, Tim R. McClanahan, M. Aaron MacNeil, Nicholas A. J. Graham, Tim M. Daw, Ahmad Mukminin, David A. Feary, Ando L. Rabearisoa, Andrew Wamukota, Narriman Jiddawi, Stuart J. Campbell, Andrew H. Baird, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Salum Hamed, Rachael Lahari, Tau Morove, and John Kuange. Comanagement of coral reef social-ecological systems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012 109 (52) 21265-21270 PNAS 2012 ; published ahead of print March 19, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1121215109
Documents and Reports
www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1121215109
Co-management Tanzania
In an effort to deliver better outcomes for people and the ecosystems they depend on, many governments and civil society groups are engaging natural resource users in collaborative management arrangements (frequently called comanagement). However, there are few empirical studies demonstrating the social and institutional conditions conducive to successful comanagement
outcomes, especially in small-scale fisheries. Here, we evaluate 42 comanagement arrangements across five countries and show that: (i) comanagement is largely successful at meeting social and ecological goals; (ii) comanagement tends to benefit wealthier resource users; (iii) resource overexploitation is most strongly influenced by market access and users’ dependence on resources; and (iv) institutional characteristics strongly influence livelihood and compliance outcomes, yet have little effect on ecological conditions
Australia/Oceania,Asia,Africa
Small Scale Fisheries,Resources Management,Institutions,Governance,Coral Reefs,Common Property Resources,Co-management
5
No
327
Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. , Heidi J. Albers, and Stephen L . Kirama. The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas An Example from Tanzania. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series. Feb 2012.
Documents and Reports
www.efdinitiative.org
Social Issues in MPAs Madagascar
Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions. We argue that MPAs in poor countries can only contribute to sustainability if management induces changes in resource-dependent households’ incentives to fish. With Tanzania‘s Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and its internal villages as an example, we use an economic decision modeling framework as a lens to examine incentives, reaction to incentives, and implications for sustainable MPA management created by park managers‘ use of enforcement (sticks) and livelihood projects (carrots). We emphasize practical implementation issues faced by MBREMP managers and implications for fostering marine ecosystem sustainability in a poor country setting
Africa
MPA,Marine Reserves,Madagascar,Livelihood,Enforcement
5
No
328
Leleu, Kevin, Frederique Alban, Dominique Pelletier, Eric Charbonnel, Yves Letourneur, Charles F. Boudouresque. Fishers' perceptions as indicators of the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Marine Policy36(2012)414–422. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.06.002
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs France
How users perceive the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is fundamental for the social
acceptance of these zones. Moreover, their perceptions may be relevant for monitoring the effects of MPAs on extractive activities. This study analyzes artisanal fishers' perceptions of the performance of a north-western Mediterranean coastal MPA, which encompasses two no-take zones (NTZs). Three viewpoints have been considered: the effect on the personal activity of fishers, the effect on the local fishery and the effect on the ecosystem. In order to test the hypothesis that biomass export (spillover) – which had previously been evidenced from the two NTZs – may influence fishers' perceptions of NTZ effects, fishers' perceptions were compared with both declared and observed fishing activity over an one-year period. The results show that negative perceptions of NTZs are either nil or are negligible. Most fishers are aware of the beneficial effects of NTZs on ecosystems and fisheries. However, they remain to be convinced of the beneficial effects of the NTZs on their own activity. For instance, the proximity of a NTZ appears never to be involved in the choice of a fishing spot. This partial lack of correspondence between scientific expectation and fishers' perceptions is discussed in the light of fishing habits in the zone adjacent to NTZs, and takes into account fishing grounds, targeted species and seniority (defined as the number of years the fisher has been fishing within the MPA). All three factors appear to influence fishers' perceptions. For example, having a positive perception about a NTZ and spending more time fishing in the adjacent zone are habits that can be associated with fishers with less seniority. Fishers' perceptions obviously indicate the social acceptance of the MPA and are an essential monitoring tool for MPA managers. However, perceptions cannot be seen as a substitute for scientific monitoring, as both approaches are clearly complementary.
Europe
Social Issues,No-take Zones,MPA,Artisanal Fisheries
5
No
329
Di Ciommo, Regina C. and Alexandre Schiavetti. Women participation in the management of a Marine Protected Area in Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management 62 (2012) 15e23. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.02.010
Documents and Reports
Women and Resources Management,Social Issues in MPAs,Role of Women Brazil
The Marine Extractive Reserve Corumbau, a MPA unit, was created for the sustainable use of fishing
resources. The exclusive right over resources requires that its population of fishermen and fisherwomen have consistent and equitable participation in the decision-making for an effective co-management. This research considers the importance of incorporating women’s experiences and knowledge in the MPA management. We aimed to know the working conditions of women involved in fishing at the Corumbau MPA and reasons that affect their participation in management and decision-making. We have heard fisherwomen and shellfish collectors of three communities, during two consecutive years, through interviews and participative observations. Women’s participation in meetings of MERC is limited and hampered by factors related to gender, unmet expectations, lack of information. The dynamics of the meetings and the decision-making process need to address specific women’s needs and priorities, with gender sensitive measures. Increasing women’s rights at MERC and hearing their voices could lead to significant impacts on personal and collective levels, benefiting the communities as a whole. Measures directed to inform, motivate and support them could increase their degree of confidence in comanagement and increase their participation, with positive reflections on conservation and socioeconomical conditions.
Latin America
Women,Participatory Management,MPA,Extractive Reserves
1
No
330
Horigue, Vera, Porfirio M. Alino, Alan T. White and Robert L. Pressey. Marine protected area networks in the Philippines: Trends and challenges for establishment and governance. Ocean & Coastal Management 64 (2012) 15e26. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.012
Documents and Reports
Fisheries Management Philippines
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the most extensively implemented fisheries management and conservation tool in the Philippines. Most MPAs have been established and managed by communities together with local governments in a variety of community-based and co-management schemes. This approach has proven successful in gaining community acceptance and achieving local-scale fisheries and conservation objectives. However, the contribution of these MPAs to ecologically connected networks of MPAs is variable since most MPAs were not designed to be parts of networks. Nevertheless, there is growing support for the development of MPAs within the national integrated coastal management framework which supports the “scaling up” of MPAs to establish networks. Scaling up in the Philippine context is achieved by forging inter-institutional collaboration among neighboring local governments (i.e. village to provincial level), with the assistance of other institutions such as non-government organizations, academe, government agencies, and development partners including donors. Herein we review the history of MPAs in the Philippines and the development of inter-institutional collaborations and present examples of scaling up of MPAs to form networks. To further the establishment of social and ecological MPA networks in the Philippines, we describe approaches to forming MPA networks and discuss the fundamental elements of successful collaborative partnerships.
Asia
MPA,Institutions,Fisheries Management,Conservation
5
No
331
De Oliveira, Lucia Perez. Fishers asadvocatesofmarineprotectedareas:acasestudyfromGalicia (NW Spain). Mar. Policy(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.024i
Documents and Reports
Co-management Spain
After years of facing problems such as overfishing, illegal fisheries and the consequences of the Prestige oil spill, the fishermen’s association (cofradia) of Lira, a small town in the coast of Galicia (NW Spain), has pioneered a co-management initiative in the region by proposing the creation of a marine reserve. The proposal was designed and developed by the fishers in partnership with biologists and social scientists, environmentalists and members of the autonomous government of Galicia in a highly Participatory process. The views of different stakeholders on the implementation process for the marine Reserve were assessed through a programme of semi-structured interviews. These findings were also used to analyse issues related to the implementation process employing a governance analysis framework. It was observed that the inclusion of fishers in the decision-making and the use of their traditional ecological knowledge in the design of the reserve promoted a better understanding of its benefits and an improved compliance with the fishing regulations. The effectiveness of the marine reserve was very high during the first years but it has been recently undermined due to the reduction of financial state support for enforcement in the light of the current economic recession. Whilst this marine reserve was driven by the stakeholders, the prospects depend on an adequate state enforcement capacity.
Europe
Spain,participatory approach,MPA,Marine Reserves,Enforcement
5
No
332
Castrejon, Mauricio and Anthony Charles. Improving fisheries co-management through ecosystem-based spatial management: The Galapagos Marine Reserve. Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 235–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.05.040
Documents and Reports
Co-management Ecuador
Ecosystem-based spatial management (EBSM) can provide a mechanism for a strategic and integrated plan-based approach to managing human activities in the marine environment. An EBSM approach was adopted in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) at the end of the 1990s with the adoption of marine zoning. The latter was created under a co-management regime to reduce conflicts among users arising over incompatible demands for ocean space, to mitigate the impact of human activities on sensitive ecological areas, and to contribute to the sustainability of Galapagos fisheries. Unfortunately, the promise of an EBSM approach in the GMR has not been matched by effectiveness in practice, in achieving the established management objectives. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the shortcomings and lessons learned related to planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and adaptation of the GMR's marine zoning scheme, and to provide recommendations to better realize the potential value of the EBSM approach to co-managing the shellfisheries of the GMR.
Latin America
Marine Reserves,Ecuador,Ecosystem Based Management,Co-management
4
No
333
Bown, Natalie, Tim Gray and Selina M. Stead. Contested forms of governance in marine protected areas: a study of co-management and adaptive co-management. Routledge, 2013, pp. xii + 200.
books
Co-management,Social Issues in MPAs Honduras
This book is about the governance of marine protected areas (MPAs). In particular it is about two forms of governance – co-management (CM) and adaptive co-management (ACM) – which, we argue, have been applied to the Cayos Cochinos Marine Protected Area (CCMPA) in Honduras by means of two successive management plans in 2004-9 and 2008-13 respectively. The distinctive feature of CM is that it incorporates the governed as well as the government in the decision-making process and decentralizes decision-making to include the users. The distinctive feature of ACM is an active and dynamic process whereby the decision making process is continuously responsive, through learning processes, to the changing ecological and socio-economic circumstances within the social-ecological system. An extensive and critical analysis of the concepts of CM, AM and ACM, and their relationships to each other, is carried out in this book before being applied to the case study of the CCMPA. When examining the two modes of governance of the CCMPA, the book investigates, first, how far they met the three main objectives of ecological health, socio-economic well being, and good governance; and second, to what extent the first management plan fulfilled the criteria of co-management, and the second management plan fulfilled the idea of adaptive co-management.
Central America
Co-management,Adaptive management,Decision Making,MPA
5
No
334
Nguyen Thi Hoa Hong. Co-Management in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Viet Nam. A Transaction Costs Approach. 2010. Master Thesis in Fisheries and Aquaculture Management and Economics, The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, Norway & Nha Trang University, Vietnam.
Documents and Reports
Co-management Vietnam
This paper highlights the co-management of an MPA in Trao Reef locally managed marine reserve, which was established in 2001 to protect and rehabilitate fisheries resources in general and the coral reef in particular. In addition, this paper demonstrates one way to approach co-management which include the transaction-costs, the method for measuring the transaction costs in fisheries co-management system. Transaction costs are defined as “the cost of transacting, which consists of the costs of measuring the valuable attributes of what is being exchanged and the costs of protecting rights and policing and enforcing agreements” (North 1990). The study is based on fisheries management, co-management, transaction-cost literature and secondary and primary data. The reduction of transaction-costs in the last stage of co-management regime is used to choose alternative institutional arrangements for managing a fishery for public policy decisions. This study is also the first paper to mention transaction-costs in fisheries co-management in Viet Nam.
Asia
MPA,Vietnam,Reef Fisheries,Co-management
4
No
335
Henriques, Augusta & Pierre Campredon. From sacred areas to the creation of marine protected areas in the Bijagos archipelago (Guinea Bissau, West Africa). No publication details available.
Community based management Guinea-Bissau
The Bijagos islands, the only deltaic archipelago on the Atlantic coast of Africa, comprises 80 islands and covers an area of nearly 10,000 km2 off the coast of Guinea Bissau. It is a patchwork of mudflats, mangroves, palm groves and savanna grasslands which produce a wide diversity and abundance of natural resources. The archipelago currently has a population of some 25,000 inhabitants, the vast majority of whom belong to the Bijago ethnic group. The Bijagos' production system is based on the extensive and diversified use of natural resources within a subsistence economy. Although only about 20 of the islands are permanently inhabited, the entire archipelago is used according to age-old management traditions. The salient feature of the archipelago's economy is its high degree of self-sufficiency. In recent decades, a number of external influences have begun to jeopardize the harmony of the islands. In order to ensure that these new developments do not destroy the social, cultural and environmental stability underpinning the archipelago, partnerships have been set up under the banner of the Biosphere Reserve. A zoning process defining the types of use allowed in different areas was put in place with the islanders' participating in all stages. Drawing on technical support from IUCN and financial support from various donors, Guinea Bissau designated two marine protected areas - Orango National Park (1582 km2) and Joao Vieira-Poilao National Marine Park (495 km2). Given this context, the Urok islands (Formosa, Nago and Chedia) Community Protected Area is a model which may better meet the conservation requirements of the archipelago.
Africa
Indigenous Communities,Community Based Management,Protected Areas
4
No
336
Mappatoba, Marhawati and Regina Birner. Community Agreements on Conservation as an Approach to Protected Area Management : Experiences from the Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi. Paper submitted to the 9th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP). Year not given
Documents and Reports
Community based management Indonesia
Negotiated agreements between local communities and state agencies concerning the management of natural resources have gained increasing importance in recent years. Taking the case of community agreements on conservation in the area of the Lore Lindu National Park, Indonesia, as an example, the paper analyzes such agreements from two perspectives. (1) From the perspective of environmental economics, negotiated agreements are considered as a policy instrument that represents the bargaining solution proposed by Coase to solve externality problems. (2) From the perspective of policy analysis, the paper analyzes to which extent the agreements can be considered as an example of empowered deliberative democracy, a model suggested by Fung and Wright. The empirical analysis showed that the agreements differed considerably, depending on the value orientation and objectives of the NGOs promoting the agreements. Three NGOs were taken into consideration: an international NGO focussing on rural development, an international NGO specialized in nature conservation with a local sister organization focussing on community development, and a local NGO with a strong emphasis on advocacy for indigenous rights. The paper shows that both the Coase model and the deliberative democracy model are useful to better understand the logic behind the different agreements promoted by these organizations. The paper concludes that the community agreements on conservation represent a promising approach to improve the management of protected areas, even though the internal differentiation within the communities represents a challenge for this approach.
Asia
Community Based Management,Protected Areas,Conservation,NGO,Indonesia
4
No
337
Puspitasari, S. Conservation Concessions in Indonesia: An investigation of their potential. Thesis presented in part-fulfillment of the degree of Master of Science in accordance with the regulations of the University of East Anglia. September, 2003.
Community based management Indonesia
Conservation concessions are a recent development in the tropics: concession sellers protect natural ecosystems in exchange for a steady stream of structured compensation from conservationists and other investors. Conservation concessions are now under active consideration by several NGOs in Indonesia. The potential for their further implementation in Indonesia is the central subject of this paper. Five core issues are critically examined: (1) competition with existing timber concessions in Indonesian production forests, (2) Government of Indonesia and regulatory support, (3) monitoring systems, (4) local community involvement, and (5) standardising the conservation concession mechanism. The chosen methodology was to conduct a Literature Survey and Elite Interviews. The interviews were conducted with 17 key informants, who represented the Forestry Department, international NGOs, national NGOs, academia, donor agencies, and independent consultancies. The interviews covered the core issues mentioned above, while the Literature Survey focused on the history of conservation concessions and the wider conservation context in Indonesia. From these studies, the author found: (1) that there are currently several international NGOs who are, or will be, implementing conservation concessions in Indonesia; (2) that the Government of Indonesia, through a Declaration of the Ministry of Forestry, has explicitly expressed support for the conservation concession mechanism, but that more substantial GOI support will be needed,; (3) that a permanent ban on commercial logging remains difficult to realize; (4) that long-term engagement with local communities is perhaps the most important single issue (and that current practice still falls far short of the ideal); (5) that a new monitoring system is essential, involving all stakeholder group many different groups - NGOs, local and central government, Forestry Department, local communities, and academia; (6) and that the standardisation of conservation concessions is both unnecessary and undesirable, since the diversity of on-the-ground conditions requires that each concession agreement be uniquely tailored to each concession area.
Asia
Conservation,Community Based Management
4
No
338
Aswani, S., S. Albert, A. Sabetian, and T Furusawa. Customary management as precautionary and adaptive principles for protecting coral reefs in Oceania. Coral Reefs, 2007: DOI 10.1007/s00338-007-0277-z
Documents and Reports
Community based management Pacific Island
Marine conservation programs in Oceania are increasingly turning to precautionary and adaptive management, particularly approaches which emphasize local participation and customary management. Although the application of community-based natural resource management is widespread in the region, the full integration of local knowledge and practices into the design, implementation, and monitoring of community-based conservation programs has been limited. There is also little empirical data to show whether or not community-based conservation projects are meeting their stated objectives. This paper summarizes an integrated method for selecting Marine Protected Area (MPA) sites and presents empirical evidence that illustrates how an MPA that was largely conceived using indigenous ecological knowledge and existing sea tenure governance (i.e., customary management practices), as part of a regional precautionary and adaptive community-based management plan, is showing signs of biological and social success. More generally, the paper shows how hybrid natural and social research approaches in tandem with customary management for designing MPAs can protect coral reefs in Oceania.
Oceania
Community Based Management,Precautionary principle,Adaptive management,MPA,Coral Reefs,Conservation,Tenure and Use
5
No
339
White, Alan, Deguit, Evelyn, Jatulan, William and Eisma-Osorio, Liza (2006) 'Integrated Coastal Management in Philippine Local Governance: Evolution and Benefits', Coastal Management, 34:3, 287 – 302. DOI: 10.1080/08920750600686687
Documents and Reports
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920750600686687
Community based management Philippines
In 1991 the Philippine government shifted many coastal management responsibilities to local governments and fostered increased local participation in the management of coastal resources. In their delivery of integrated coastal management (ICM) as a basic service, many local governments have achieved increasing public awareness of coastal resource management (CRM) issues. Continuing challenges are financial sustainability, inadequate capacities, weak law enforcement, and lack of integrated and collaborative efforts. To address these challenges, a CRM certification system was developed to improve strategies and promote incentives for local governments to support ICM. This system is being applied by an increasing number of local governments to guide the development and implementation of ICM in their jurisdiction. The CRM benchmarks required for a local government to achieve the first level of certification are: budget allocated, CRM related organizations formed and active, CRM plan developed and adopted, shoreline management initiated and two or more best practices implemented. Implementation is providing tangible benefits to communities through enhanced fisheries production associated with MPAs, revenues from user fees and enhanced community pride through learning exchanges and involvement in decisions, among others.
Asia
Community Based Management,Integrated Management,Coastal Area Management,MPA,Governance
5
No
340
Viteria, Cesar and Carlos Chavez. Legitimacy, local participation, and compliance in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Ocean & Coastal Management 50 (2007) 253–274.
Community based management Ecuador
We analyze the compliance behavior of artisanal fishermen in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. Our empirical analysis explores the role of the reserve’s participatory management system as a determinant factor in decisions to violate regulations. The results indicate that, along with traditional enforcement tools (detection and penalties), the perception of legitimacy that regulations and local organizations have among the boat-owners, their individual sense of belonging, as well as their participation levels in their related organizations are also relevant to the compliance/violation behavior. Policy implications to improve compliance with fisheries regulations in the reserve are discussed.
Latin America
Ecuador,Artisanal Fisheries,Marine Reserves,Compliance
4
No
341
Gaspar, Anselmo Cesar. Local People’s Perceptions of Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study Of Ponta Do Ouro, Mozambique. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the academic requirements for the degree of Master of Environment and Development, in the Centre for Environment, Agriculture, and Development, School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg 2008.
Documents and Reports
Community based management,Social Issues in MPAs Mozambique
Marine protected areas (MPAs) cannot be managed outside the context of human societies that are dependent on their associated ecosystems and resources. This means that local people’s perceptions need to be considered in the establishment of MPAs as well as their subsequent management, planning and decision making processes. Accordingly, this study investigated respondents’ perceptions of the Ponta do Ouro – Kosi Bay MPA. The MPA is part of the now proclaimed Lubombo Trans-frontier Conservation Area (TFCA). An interviewer - administered questionnaire was used to obtain primary data from 35 respondents, all resident in the study area and who are involved in various activities based on the coastal area and its marine resources. The focus of the study was on awareness regarding the establishment, impacts of the MPA, the setting of priorities for the MPA and lastly, respondents’ roles and responsibilities. The findings from the study reveal low levels of awareness of the establishment of the MPA among respondents, although there was acknowledgement of its potential contribution to biodiversity conservation. Various types of impacts of the establishment of the MPA were noted. The establishment of the MPA was perceived to negatively impact on the access to, and use of, marine resources. It was also felt that the MPA would impact on the exercise of traditional authority. Concerning the setting of future priorities for the MPA, socio-economic considerations, particularly job creation rated highest. Biodiversity conservation ranked highest in terms of factors that should shape the current priorities of the MPA. Overall, tourism and related job creation and biodiversity conservation were identified as the main opportunities associated with the establishment of the MPA. Controlling access to the area, curbing inappropriate resource use, controlling development and ensuring that local people benefit were highlighted as major opportunity benefits. Constraints were mainly considered in relation to the exercise of traditional leadership, access to the area and restrictions in selling of harvested marine resources. Regarding how to collaborate in the MPA, various skills among the respondents were mentioned, with respect to the following areas: enforcement (control, patrols and security) and community relations and awareness (including communication and the translation of documents). Lastly, while the respondents displayed both supportive and unsupportive attitudes as results of perceptions of the intended MPA, in an overall sense, the MPA was considered as a positive development. This was in spite of the perceived weak communications that exist at present between the authorities and local people. Enhanced, communication between authorities in charge of the MPA and local people could help to provide a more positive sentiment towards the MPA. This is particularly true of the local people who, if they understood the rationale for the MPA more fully and how it would impact on their use of the resources of the MPA, would be more likely to support its establishment and existence.
Africa
Mozambique,MPA,Participation,Impact,Enforcement
5
No
342
Jones, P.J.S., W. Qiu and E.M. De Santo. Governing marine protected areas: social-ecological resilience through institutional diversity. Marine Policy. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.026
Documents and Reports
Social Issues in MPAs,Marine Protected Areas,Community based management,Co-management United States
Marine protected areas (MPAs) worldwide are facing increasing driving forces, which represent a major and increasing challenge for MPA governance. The Marine Protected Area Governance (MPAG) project examined a range of different incentives – economic, interpretative, knowledge, legal and participative – employed to address the driving forces and promote effectiveness in 20 case studies across the globe. This paper argues that, regardless of the MPA governance approach adopted (i.e., government-led, decentralised, private or community-led), resilience in MPA governance systems derives from employ- ing a diversity of inter-connected incentives. The significance of institutional diversity to governance systems parallels that of species diversity to ecosystems, conferring resilience to the overall socio– ecological system. The paper concludes that, in the face of strong driving forces, rather than relying on particular types of incentives and institutions, it is important to recognise that the key to resilience is diversity, both of species in ecosystems and of institutions in governance systems.
N. America,Latin America,Europe,Central America,Australia/Oceania,Asia,Africa
Social Issues,MPA,Institutions,Governance,Community Based Management
4
No
343
Campbell, Stuart J., Tasrif Kartawijaya, Irfan Yulianto, Rian Prasetia and Julian Clifton. Co-management approaches and incentives improve management effectiveness in the Karimunjawa National Park, Indonesia. Marine Policy (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.12.022
Documents and Reports
Co-management Indonesia
Karimunjawa National Park (KNP) was among the first maritime areas recognized in Indonesia as being important for the conservation of marine biodiversity. Economic incentives in the KNP aim to decrease community dependency on wild-captured natural resources and achieve biodiversity and development objectives. Various participatory mechanisms facilitate community involvement in governance, whilst other incentives promoting awareness and support for fishery regulations are being delivered. Monitoring programs have demonstrated some ecological improvements and reductions in destructive fishing in the park over the past five years. The findings demonstrate that MPA policies and regulations can improve the social well-being and political power of fishing communities, particularly when appropriate economic, legal and participatory incentives are provided.
Asia
Coral Reefs,Community Based Management,Co-management,Fisheries,Governance
4
No
344
Nunan, Fiona, Joseph Luomba, Caroline Lwenya, Ernest Yongo, Konstantine Odongkara and Baker Ntambi. Finding Space for Participation: Fisherfolk Mobility and Co-Management of Lake Victoria Fisheries. Environmental Management (2012) 50:204–216. DOI 10.1007/s00267-012-9881-y
Documents and Reports
Co-management Kenya
The literature on fisheries co-management is almost silent on the issue of the movement of fisherfolk within fisheries, although such movement must have implications for the effectiveness of co-management. The introduction of co-management often involves the formation of new structures that should enable the participation of key stakeholder groups in decision-making and management, but such participation is challenging for migrating fishers. The article reports on a study on Lake Victoria, East Africa, which investigated the extent of movement around the lake and the implications of movement for how fishers participate and are represented in co-management, and the implications of the extent and nature of movement for co-management structures and processes. The analysis draws on the concept of space from the literature on participation in development and on a framework of representation in fisheries co-management in addressing these questions. The created space is on an ‘invited’ rather than open basis, reflecting the top-down nature of implementation and the desire to secure participation of different occupational groups, as well as women in a male-dominated sector. The more powerful boat owners dominate positions of power within the co-management system, particularly as the levels of co-management, from subdistrict to national, are traversed. The limited power and resources of boat crew are exacerbated by the degree and nature of movement around the lake, making effective participation in co-management decision-making a challenge.
Africa
Co-management,Fishermen,Migration,Lake Fisheries,Lake Victoria
4
No
345
Monica Perez-Ramirez, German Ponce-Diaz and Salvador Lluch-Cota. The role of MSC certification in the empowerment of fishing cooperatives in Mexico: The case of red rock lobster co-managed fishery. Ocean & Coastal Management 63 (2012) 24-29. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.03.009
Documents and Reports
Co-management Mexico
We describe the certification of the red rock lobster fishery of Mexico and the resulting empowerment of the fishing cooperatives. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification program recognizes sustainable fishing; the Mexican lobster is the first community-based fishery to be certified. Lobster is harvested by fishermen cooperatives that have limited access rights, organizational incentives, self-management ability, and investment in fixed and social capital. The lobster fishery represents effective co-management by government and cooperatives and MSC certification that leads to non-economic benefits, especially empowerment and community strengthening. MSC certification has had a positive impact on fishermen’s cooperatives and gained international recognition for the Mexican fishery policy, with the possibility of increased renewal of fishermen’s access rights. We argue that co-management and community-based decision-making addresses the issue of fish sustainability. The benefits of MSC certification could not be repeated in other fisheries in Mexico, where fishermen do not share strong management and community identity.
Latin America
MSC,Mexico,Lobster,Fisheries,Decision Making,Co-management
1
No
346
Ratner, Blake D., Benoy Barman, Philippa Cohen, Mam Kosal, Joseph Nagoli and Edward H. Allison, 2012. Strengthening Governance Across Scales in Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Working Paper, The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. AAS-2012-10.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Solomon Islands
Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders operating from local to national and regional scales over rights to access and use natural resources—land, water, wetlands, and fisheries—essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision-making amidst such competition, building capacities for resilience and transformations that reduce poverty. This paper provides a simple framework to analyze the governance context for aquatic agricultural system development focused on three dimensions: stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and mechanisms of accountability. Case studies from Cambodia, Bangladesh, Malawi/Mozambique, and Solomon Islands illustrate the application of these concepts to fisheries and aquaculture livelihoods in the broader context of intersectoral and cross-scale governance interactions.
Oceania,Asia,Africa
Stakeholders,Socio-economic Aspects,Governance,Coastal Area Management
4
No
347
Ratner, Blake D., Edmund J.V. Oh and Robert S. Pomeroy. Navigating change: Second-generation challenges of small-scale fisheries co-management in the Philippines and Vietnam. Journal of Environmental Management 107 (2012) 131-139. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.04.014
Documents and Reports
Co-management Philippines
Early efforts to apply the concept of fisheries co-management in Southeast Asia focused primarily on building the effectiveness of local management institutions and advocating the merits of the approach so that it would be applied in new sites, while gradually learning and adapting to a range of obstacles in practice. Today, with co-management widely embraced by the research community and adopted as policy by an increasing number of governments, a second-generation perspective has emerged. This perspective is distinguished by efforts to navigate and influence change in the broader institutional and governance context: (a) a more sophisticated appreciation of politics, power relations, and the role of the state, (b) efforts to manage resource competition beyond the fisheries sector, (c) building institutions for adaptation and learning, and (d) recognizing divergent values and goals influencing fisheries management. This paper traces the evolution of this second-generation perspective, noting how it has built on learning from early practice and how it has been cross-fertilized by theoretical innovations in related fields, notably resilience thinking and political ecology. We illustrate this evolution through analysis of experience in the Philippines, with a relatively long experience of learning and adaptation in fisheries co-management practice, and Vietnam, where fisheries co-management policies have been embraced more recently. Characterizing the second-generation perspective helps identify points of convergence in the research and policy community about what needs attention, providing a basis for more systematic cross-country and cross-regional learning.
Asia
Co-management,Governance,Adaptive management,Vietnam,Philippines
4
No
348
Rosemarie Mwaipopo, Eleanor Fisher, Innocent Wanyonyi, Patrick Kimani, Joseph Tunje, Flower Msuya, Vivian Bashemerewa, (2011). The Relationship Between Community-Based Organisations and the Effective Management of Coastal and Marine Resources in the WIO Region. A report for the Marine Science for Management Programme of the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association. xii + 85pp.
Documents and Reports
http://wiomsa.net/index.php?option=com_jdownloads&Itemid=53&view=viewdownload&catid=70&cid=1000
Community based management Kenya
This study examines the relationship between Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) and marine and coastal resource management in the Western Indian Ocean Region. It explores what roles CBOs play in relation to natural resource utilisation and whether they have an ability to act effectively as community managers of these resources. The research focuses on CBOs in the coastal zone of Kenya and Tanzania. The study identified how the lack of legal mandate conferred on CBOs (except Beach Management Units, Community Forestry Associations and Kamati ya Mazingira) can severely constrain their capacity to act and authority in relation to NRM. Manipulation and corruption can also cause CBO leadership to betray communities when it comes to making decisions about resource use. In short, this study finds that there are examples of excellent practice and leadership by CBOs in relation to NRM. However, internal CBO capacity is very limited and the external political economy imposes severe constraints on CBOs ability to act as effective natural resource managers.
Africa
Community Based Management,Community Organisations,Community Organizations,Resources Management,BMU,Natural Resource Management
5
No
349
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Community Marine Association of Cruzinha da Garça, Republic of Cape Verde. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Cape Verde
Cruzinha da Garça is one of the most important nesting grounds for sea turtles in Cape Verde. The Community Marine Association of Cruzinha da Garça seeks to develop alternative forms of local marine resource use to conserve this endangered species. The project is part of a regional initiative that involves fishing communities in the conservation of marine turtles and their habitat. Conservation and sustainable livelihoods work extends to the islands of São Nicolau, Santo Antao and Sao Vicente.
The association protects spawning loggerhead sea turtles in their natural habitats through beach monitoring, protecting the nesting grounds of the loggerhead sea turtles, and guarding against sand extraction and resulting habitat loss. The local population is engaged in data collection on both species and population growth and is involved in the development of ecotourism ventures.
Africa
Sea Turtle,Ecotourism,Conservation
4
No
350
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Amal - Crab Bay Community Resource Management Initiative, Vanuatu. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY.
Documents and Reports
Community based management Vanuatu
The successes of the Amal-Crab Bay initiative in conserving marine resources in their tabu area, located on the eastern coastline of the island of Malekula, Vanuatu, has been underpinned by the use of a traditional resource management system and innovative awareness-raising efforts. The bay forms part of the Port Stanley mangrove area, and is home to extensive fringing reefs, sea grass beds, and a high abundance of crabs. This resource is critical for local livelihoods and food security, and has been the focus of sustainable harvesting regulations since 2002, when community chiefs instituted a ban on harvesting within the mangrove forests.
These community-led efforts have been strengthened with support from an array of international partners; as a result, the initiative has overseen an increase in marine and coastal resources, compiled an evidence base for the bay’s mangrove ecosystem, and developed local ecotourism infrastructure.
Oceania
Traditional based management system,Community Based Management,Mangroves
4
No
351
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. San Crisanto Foundation, Mexico. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY.
Documents and Reports
http://equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/winners/78/casestudy/case_1348160793.pdf
Community based management Mexico
The San Crisanto Foundation focuses on mangrove restoration and flood prevention in a region that consistently faces heavy rainfall and flooding. Since the Foundation’s establishment, over 11,300 metres of canals have been restored, and 45 cenotes have been delisted and rehabilitated. As a result, flood risk is reduced and populations and diversity of endemic wildlife in the cenotes and mangrove forests have increased. Restoration efforts have generated 60 jobs and local household incomes have increased substantially.
To complement to its restoration efforts, the Foundation undertakes community education and awareness-raising, emphasising the value of wetland and mangrove conservation for local livelihoods and as a natural buffer against floods
Central America
Mangroves,Conservation,Community Based Management,Wetlands
4
No
352
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Fishing Community of Tomia (KOMUNTO), Indonesia. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY.
Documents and Reports
http://equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/winners/98/casestudy/case_1348161880.pdf
Community based management Indonesia
The Fishing Community of Tomia is a community-based organization composed of representatives of fishers’ groups from East Tomia, Indonesia. The organization was established in response to shared community concerns regarding foreign commercial fishing, the use of destructive fishing methods, and a vacuum in local government leadership on the sustainable management of Wakatobi natural resources.
The initiative encourages the local management of natural resources to improve community wellbeing. It has promoted local participation in zoning and spatial planning of Wakatobi National Park, and established three protected areas around the island of Tomia to allow fish stocks to regenerate. Financial contribution from members fund savings and loan services and support for members with in times of need.
Asia
Community Based Management,Community Organisations,Natural Resource Management
4
No
353
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Roush Marine Protected Area Community, Socotra. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY
Documents and Reports
Community based management,Marine Protected Areas Yemen
Roush Protected Area Community, Socotra, is located one kilometer north of Socotra, an island off the coast of Yemen. The marine protected area belongs to the communities of Sacra and Diherhom villages, and was developed in response to an observed decline in marine resources and fish populations. A conservation area and eco-campsite were established, and the initiative was later broadened to include conservation activities more generally.
The campsite has created local jobs and benefits are shared equitably amongst participating communities. The initiative follows principles of environmental responsibility, using solar panels for energy and undertaking sustainable management of water. In addition to the benefits of ecotourism revenues, Sacra and Diherhom villages have benefitted from increased stocks of fish and other marine resources.
Africa
MPA,Ecotourism
4
No
354
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Samudram Women’s Federation, India. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY
Documents and Reports
Community based management India
Samudram is a federation of 160 women’s self-help groups across 50 villages in Ganjam and the nearby districts of Orissa, India. The Federation works at the intersection of biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction, empowering its more than 1,500 economically-marginalized members with income generation activities, while conserving Olive Ridley Turtle nesting sites.
Samudram undertakes monitoring and breeding of the turtles, restores their habitats, implements artificial reef construction and promotes sustainable fishing practices to increase marine resource diversity. Meanwhile, women members and the wider community benefit from capacity building training, access to microfinance, and increased income as a result of improved fish yields.
Asia
Community Based Management,Sea Turtle,Biodiversity,Poverty
4
No
355
United Nations Development Programme. 2012. Trowel Development Foundation, Philippines. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. New York, NY.
Documents and Reports
http://equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/winners/155/casestudy/case_1348261106.pdf
Community based management Philippines
Trowel Development Foundation is a community-based organization employing climate-adapted aquaculture technology to replant mangroves. Mangrove reforestation efforts have focused on planting native tree species in strategic areas, resulting in restored marine biodiversity, food security, and protection of coastal areas.
The initiative also works to increase local incomes and improve livelihoods through a value-chain system to market tie-crabs. The group has established five community-managed tie-crab farms that benefit 250 subsistence fishing households. This innovation has been implemented in idle fishponds, where mangrove-friendly and climate-adapted tie-crab fattening technology has been employed to double the income of fishing households.
Asia
Aquaculture,Mangroves,Livelihood,Crab
4
No
356
Kim Anh Thi Nguyen, 2012. Field-testing the Applicability of Fisheries Co-management Models in Ben Tre Province of Vietnam. Fish for the People, 10(3): 20-27
Co-management Vietnam
The involvement of fisher communities in ensuring the healthy development and exploitation of fishery resources is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable fisheries. With the fisher communities playing vital role in fisheries management, fishers should be integrated into the management systems and treated as key partners in management decisions, and most of all guaranteed appropriate rights to participate in the overall formulation of policies for fishing operations and relevant activities. In Southeast Asia where fishery resources are widely distributed, fisheries comanagement
or the system by which management responsibility is shared between government authorities and fishing communities constitute a new paradigm in managing the fishery resources. Particularly for Vietnam, the existing co-management approaches were modified and adapted in Ben Tre Province to examine their practicability in real field situations. It is envisaged that the results of this investigation could help policy makers in developing regulations and decisions towards the sustainable development of fisheries through the adoption of co-management approaches.
Asia
Co-management,Fisheries,Models,Fisheries Management
4
No
357
Ruangsivakul, Sumitra, 2012. Strengthening Institutional Capability and Participatory Mechanism in Coastal Fisheries Management through Rights-based Fisheries and Co-management. Fish for the People, 10(3): 17-19
Documents and Reports
Co-management Asia
The Resolution and Plan of Action adopted during the ASEAN-SEAFDEC Conference on Sustainable Fisheries for Food Security Towards 2020 “Fish for the People 2020: Adaptation to a Changing Environment” in June 2011 (SEAFDEC, 2011) promote the establishment and implementation of comprehensive policies for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management through effective systems, such as: (i) development of licensing system to fish (boats, gear and people); (ii) provision of community fishing rights/rights-based fisheries; (iii) development of supporting legal and institutional frameworks; (iv) promotion of institutional cooperation; and (v) assistance in streamlining co-management. Therefore, guided by the relevant provisions in the Resolution and Plan of Action, SEAFDEC will continue to implement effective management systems in fisheries especially through the ecosystem approach to fisheries in order to enhance the social and economic benefits that could be derived by all stakeholders
Asia
SEAFDEC,Co-management,rights-based,Food Security,Ecosystem Approach
4
No
358
MPA News – items on LMMA. http://depts.washington.edu/mpanews/issues.html
Documents and Reports
http://depts.washington.edu/mpanews/issues.html
Community based management,Marine Protected Areas South Pacific Islands
News items on LMMA included in the MPA News issues between 2008 and 2013 have been collected into one single document. The LMMA Network is a group of practitioners working to improve locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in the Indo-Pacific by sharing knowledge and resources. Active for more than a decade, the network now involves hundreds of LMMA sites across seven countries: Fiji, Indonesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pohnpei, and Solomon Islands. The news items include links to the LMMA annual reports, case studies, best practices and lessons learnt.
Australia/Oceania
Sustainable Management,Resources Management,No-take Zones,MPA,LMMPA,Fishing techniques,Fishing Methods,Enforcement,Compliance,Community Based Management
5
No